Anthropogenic nutrients and harmful algae in coastal waters
Gowen, Richard J.
Harrison, Paul J.
Fleming, Lora E.
MetadataShow full item record
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are thought to be increasing in coastal waters worldwide. Anthropogenic nutrient enrichment has been proposed as a principal causative factor of this increase through elevated inorganic and/or organic nutrient concentrations and modified nutrient ratios. We assess: 1) the level of understanding of the link between the amount, form and ratio of anthropogenic nutrients and HABs; 2) the evidence for a link between anthropogenically generated HABs and negative impacts on human health; and 3) the economic implications of anthropogenic nutrient/HAB interactions. We demonstrate that an anthropogenic nutrient-HAB link is far from universal, and where it has been demonstrated, it is most frequently associated with high biomass rather than low biomass (biotoxin producing) HABs. While organic nutrients have been shown to support the growth of a range of HAB species, insufficient evidence exists to clearly establish if these nutrients specifically promote the growth of harmful species in preference to benign ones, or if/how they influence toxicity of harmful species. We conclude that the role of anthropogenic nutrients in promoting HABs is site-specific, with hydrodynamic processes often determining whether blooms occur. We also find a lack of evidence of widespread significant adverse health impacts from anthropogenic nutrient-generated HABs, although this may be partly due to a lack of human/animal health and HAB monitoring. Detailed economic evaluation and cost/benefit analysis of the impact of anthropogenically generated HABs, or nutrient reduction schemes to alleviate them, is also frequently lacking.
© The Author(s), 2014. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Journal of Environmental Management 146 (2014): 206-216, doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.07.002.
Suggested CitationArticle: Davidson, Keith, Gowen, Richard J., Harrison, Paul J., Fleming, Lora E., Hoagland, Porter, Moschonas, Grigorios, "Anthropogenic nutrients and harmful algae in coastal waters", Journal of Environmental Management 146 (2014): 206-216, DOI:10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.07.002, https://hdl.handle.net/1912/6838
The following license files are associated with this item:
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Macroalgal responses to experimental nutrient enrichment in shallow coastal waters : growth, internal nutrient pools, and isotopic signatures Teichberg, Mirta; Fox, Sophia E.; Aguila, Carolina; Olsen, Ylva S.; Valiela, Ivan (Inter-Research, 2008-09-25)Increased nutrient inputs to temperate coastal waters have led to increased occurrences of macroalgal blooms worldwide. To identify nutrients that are limiting to macroalgae and to determine whether different forms of these ...
Sen, Indra S.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard (2012-07)The extent to which humans are modifying Earth’s surface chemistry can be quantified by comparing total anthropogenic element fluxes with their natural counterparts (Klee & Graedel, 2004). We quantify anthropogenic mass ...
Increased threat of tropical cyclones and coastal flooding to New York City during the anthropogenic era Reed, Andra J.; Mann, Michael E.; Emanuel, Kerry A.; Lin, Ning; Horton, Benjamin P.; Kemp, Andrew C.; Donnelly, Jeffrey P. (2015-08)In a changing climate, future inundation of the United States’ Atlantic coast will depend on both storm surges during tropical cyclones and the rising relative sea-levels on which those surges occur. However, the ...