The human health effects of Florida Red Tide (FRT) blooms : an expanded analysis
Beet, Andrew R.
Ullmann, Steven G.
Fleming, Lora E.
MetadataShow full item record
Human respiratory and digestive illnesses can be caused by exposures to brevetoxins from blooms of the marine alga Karenia brevis, also known as Florida red tide (FRT). K. brevis requires macro-nutrients to grow; although the sources of these nutrients have not been resolved completely, they are thought to originate both naturally and anthropogenically. The latter sources comprise atmospheric depositions, industrial effluents, land runoffs, or submerged groundwater discharges. To date, there has been only limited research on the extent of human health risks and economic impacts due to FRT. We hypothesized that FRT blooms were associated with increases in the numbers of emergency room visits and hospital inpatient admissions for both respiratory and digestive illnesses. We sought to estimate these relationships and to calculate the costs of associated adverse health impacts. We developed environmental exposure-response models to test the effects of FRT blooms on human health, using data from diverse sources. We estimated the FRT bloom-associated illness costs, using extant data and parameters from the literature. When controlling for resident population, a proxy for tourism, and seasonal and annual effects, we found that increases in respiratory and digestive illnesses can be explained by FRT blooms. Specifically, FRT blooms were associated with human health and economic effects in older cohorts (≥ 55 years of age) in six southwest Florida counties. Annual costs of illness ranged from $60,000 to $700,000 annually, but these costs could exceed $1.0 million per year for severe, long-lasting FRT blooms, such as the one that occurred during 2005. Assuming that the average annual illness costs of FRT blooms persist into the future, using a discount rate of 3%, the capitalized costs of future illnesses would range between $2-24 million.
Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2014. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Environment International 68 (2014): 144-153, doi:10.1016/j.envint.2014.03.016.
Suggested CitationPreprint: Hoagland, Porter, Jin, Di, Beet, Andrew R., Kirkpatrick, Barbara, Reich, Andrew, Ullmann, Steven G., Fleming, Lora E., Kirkpatrick, Gary, "The human health effects of Florida Red Tide (FRT) blooms : an expanded analysis", 2014-03, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2014.03.016, https://hdl.handle.net/1912/6802
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Hoagland, Porter; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Hitchcock, Gary; Ullmann, Steven G.; Reich, Andrew; Fleming, Lora E.; Jin, Di; Beet, Andrew R.; Li, Cathy; Garrison, Bruce; Lovko, Vince; Kohler, Kate; Rudge, Katrin (2015-11-11)A growing concern for coastal management is the choice of appropriate public or private responses to HABs as a natural hazard. Considerable efforts have been devoted to understanding the scientific aspects of HABs, ...
CHANS : modeling the dynamics of HABs, human communities, and policy choices along the Florida Gulf Coast Hoagland, Porter; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Hitchcock, Gary; Ullmann, Steven G.; Reich, Andrew; Fleming, Lora E.; Jin, Di; Beet, Andrew R.; Li, Cathy; Garrison, Bruce; Lovko, Vince; Kohler, Kate; Rudge, Katrin (2015-11-19)Coupled human-nature systems (CHANS) involve dynamic interactions between humans and nature, often influenced by and affecting the distinct dynamic characteristics of each component. We present an overview of an ongoing ...
Moore, Tamecia; Diaz, Roberto E.; Ullmann, Steven G.; Hoagland, Porter; Beet, Andrew R.; Jin, Di; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Fleming, Lora E.; Hitchcock, Gary; Drennon, Michael; Kumar, Naresh (2015-11-15)We analyzed a potential relationship between changes in school absences in Sarasota County and Karenia brevis (Kb) count data. Brevetoxins released during Kb blooms could be a reason for students experiencing increased ...