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dc.contributor.authorCole, Sylvia T.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorTimmermans, Mary-Louise  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorToole, John M.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorKrishfield, Richard A.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorThwaites, Fredrik T.  Concept link
dc.date.accessioned2014-05-20T13:54:21Z
dc.date.available2014-11-01T08:56:42Z
dc.date.issued2014-05
dc.identifier.citationJournal of Physical Oceanography 44 (2014): 1306–1328en_US
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/1912/6660
dc.descriptionAuthor Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2014. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 44 (2014): 1306–1328, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-12-0191.1.en_US
dc.description.abstractThe ice–ocean system is investigated on inertial to monthly time scales using winter 2009–10 observations from the first ice-tethered profiler (ITP) equipped with a velocity sensor (ITP-V). Fluctuations in surface winds, ice velocity, and ocean velocity at 7-m depth were correlated. Observed ocean velocity was primarily directed to the right of the ice velocity and spiraled clockwise while decaying with depth through the mixed layer. Inertial and tidal motions of the ice and in the underlying ocean were observed throughout the record. Just below the ice–ocean interface, direct estimates of the turbulent vertical heat, salt, and momentum fluxes and the turbulent dissipation rate were obtained. Periods of elevated internal wave activity were associated with changes to the turbulent heat and salt fluxes as well as stratification primarily within the mixed layer. Turbulent heat and salt fluxes were correlated particularly when the mixed layer was closest to the freezing temperature. Momentum flux is adequately related to velocity shear using a constant ice–ocean drag coefficient, mixing length based on the planetary and geometric scales, or Rossby similarity theory. Ekman viscosity described velocity shear over the mixed layer. The ice–ocean drag coefficient was elevated for certain directions of the ice–ocean shear, implying an ice topography that was characterized by linear ridges. Mixing length was best estimated using the wavenumber of the beginning of the inertial subrange or a variable drag coefficient. Analyses of this and future ITP-V datasets will advance understanding of ice–ocean interactions and their parameterizations in numerical models.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipSupport for this study and the overall ITP program was provided by the National Science Foundation and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Support for S. Cole was partially though the Postdoctoral Scholar Program at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, with funding provided by the Devonshire Foundation.en_US
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherAmerican Meteorological Societyen_US
dc.relation.urihttps://doi.org/10.1175/JPO-D-12-0191.1
dc.subjectGeographic location/entityen_US
dc.subjectArcticen_US
dc.subjectSea iceen_US
dc.subjectCirculation/ Dynamicsen_US
dc.subjectEkman pumping/transporten_US
dc.subjectInternal wavesen_US
dc.subjectTurbulenceen_US
dc.subjectAtm/Ocean Structure/ Phenomenaen_US
dc.subjectOceanic mixed layeren_US
dc.titleEkman veering, internal waves, and turbulence observed under Arctic sea iceen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.description.embargo2014-11-01en_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1175/JPO-D-12-0191.1


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