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dc.contributor.authorWheeler, Jeanette D.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorHelfrich, Karl R.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorAnderson, Erik J.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorMcGann, B.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorStaats, P.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorWargula, Anna E.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorWilt, K.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorMullineaux, Lauren S.  Concept link
dc.date.accessioned2013-10-23T19:08:42Z
dc.date.available2013-10-23T19:08:42Z
dc.date.issued2013-08-15
dc.identifier.citationMarine Ecology Progress Series 488 (2013): 171-185en_US
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/1912/6275
dc.descriptionAuthor Posting. © Inter-Research, 2013. This article is posted here by permission of Inter-Research for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Marine Ecology Progress Series 488 (2013): 171-185, doi:10.3354/meps10382.en_US
dc.description.abstractInvestigating settlement responses in the transitory period between planktonic and benthic stages of invertebrates helps shape our understanding of larval dispersal and supply, as well as early adult survival. Turbulence is a physical cue that has been shown to induce sinking and potentially settlement responses in mollusc larvae. In this study, we determined the effect of turbulence on vertical swimming velocity and diving responses in competent eastern oyster larvae Crassostrea virginica. We quantified the behavioural responses of larvae in a moving flow field by measuring and analyzing larval velocities in a relative framework (where local flow is subtracted away, isolating the behavioural component) in contrast to the more common absolute framework (in which behaviour and advection by the flow are conflated). We achieved this separation by simultaneously and separately tracking individuals and measuring the flow field around them using particle image velocimetry in a grid-stirred turbulence tank. Contrary to our expectations, larvae swam upward even in highly turbulent flow, and the dive response became less frequent. These observations suggest that oyster larvae are stronger swimmers than previously expected and provide evidence that turbulence alone may not always be a sufficient cue for settlement out of the water column. Furthermore, at a population level, absolute velocity distributions differed significantly from isolated larval swimming velocities, a result that held over increasing turbulence levels. The absolute velocity distributions indicated a strong downward swimming or sinking response at high turbulence levels, but this observation was in fact due to downwelling mean flows in the tank within the imaging area. Our results suggest that reliable characterization of larval behaviour in turbulent conditions requires the subtraction of local flow at an individual level, imposing the technical constraint of simultaneous flow and behavioural observations.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work was supported by NSF grant OCE-0850419, grants from WHOI Coastal Ocean Institute, discretionary WHOI funds to purchase the infrared laser and high-speed camera, and a WHOI Ocean Life Fellowship to L.S.M.en_US
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherInter-Researchen_US
dc.relation.urihttps://doi.org/10.3354/meps10382
dc.subjectTurbulenceen_US
dc.subjectCrassostrea virginicaen_US
dc.subjectSettlementen_US
dc.subjectLarval behaviouren_US
dc.subjectParticle image velocimetryen_US
dc.titleUpward swimming of competent oyster larvae Crassostrea virginica persists in highly turbulent flow as detected by PIV flow subtractionen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.3354/meps10382


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