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dc.contributor.authorMiller, Nathaniel C.  Concept link
dc.coverage.spatialGuaymas Basin
dc.coverage.spatialGulf of California
dc.date.accessioned2013-08-05T15:53:41Z
dc.date.available2013-08-05T15:53:41Z
dc.date.issued2013-06
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/1912/6140
dc.descriptionSubmitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution June 2013en_US
dc.description.abstractThis thesis investigates three processes that control the evolution of oceanic margins. Chapter 2 presents seismic images of a ~2-km-thick evaporite body in Guaymas Basin, central Gulf of California. In rifts, evaporites form under conditions unique to the latest stages of continental rupture, and the presence, age, thickness, and shape place new constraints on the history of early rifting there. Chapter 3 presents numerical experiments that show that diapirs can form in sediments on the down-going plate in subduction zones and rise into the mantle wedge, delivering the sedimentary component widely observed in arc magmas. Chapter 4 presents measurements of seismic anisotropy from wide-angle, active-source data from the Middle America Trench that address the hypothesis that the upper mantle is hydrated by seawater flowing along outer-rise normal faults. These measurements indicate that the upper mantle is ~1.57 to 6.89% anisotropic, and this anisotropy can be attributed to bending-related faulting and an inherited mantle fabric. Accounting for anisotropy reduces previous estimates for the amount of water stored in the upper mantle of the down-going plate from ~2.5 to 1.5 wt%, a significant change in subduction zone water budgets.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Science Foundation (NSF) Division of Ocean Science (OCE) #824497 and NSF OCE-MARGINS #825178 and #841063 to Dan Lizarralde, as well as NSF Division of Earth Sciences #0652707 to Mark Behn.en_US
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherMassachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institutionen_US
dc.relation.ispartofseriesWHOI Thesesen_US
dc.subjectRiftsen_US
dc.subjectContinental marginsen_US
dc.subjectMaurice Ewing (Ship) Cruise EW0210en_US
dc.titleEvolution of oceanic margins : rifting in the Gulf of California and sediment diapirism and mantle hydration during subductionen_US
dc.typeThesisen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1575/1912/6140


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