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dc.contributor.authorRichards, Clark G.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorBourgault, Daniel  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorGalbraith, Peter S.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorHay, Alex  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorKelley, Daniel E.  Concept link
dc.date.accessioned2013-05-29T20:22:49Z
dc.date.available2014-10-22T08:57:22Z
dc.date.issued2013-01-30
dc.identifier.citationJournal of Geophysical Research 118 (2013): 273–286en_US
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/1912/5924
dc.descriptionAuthor Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2013. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research 118 (2013): 273–286, doi:10.1029/2012JC008154.en_US
dc.description.abstractThe shoaling of horizontally propagating internal waves may represent an important source of mixing and transport in estuaries and coastal seas. Including such effects in numerical models demands improvements in the understanding of several aspects of the energetics, especially those relating to turbulence generation, and observations are needed to build this understanding. To address some of these issues in the estuarine context, we undertook an intensive field program for 10 days in the summer of 2008 in the St. Lawrence Estuary. The sampling involved shore-based photogrammetry, ship-based surveys, and an array of moorings in the shoaling region that held both conventional and turbulence-resolving sensors. The measurements shed light on many aspects of the wave shoaling process. Wave arrivals were generally phase-locked with the M2 tide, providing hints about far-field forcing. In the deeper part of the study domain, the waves propagated according to the predictions of linear theory. In intermediate-depth waters, the waves traversed the field site perpendicularly to isobaths, a pattern that continued as the waves transformed nonlinearly. Acoustic Doppler velocimeters permitted inference of the turbulent energetics, and two main features were studied. First, during a period of shoaling internal waves, turbulence dissipation rates exceeded values associated with tidal shear by an order of magnitude. Second, the evolving spectral signatures associated with a particular wave-shoaling event suggest that the turbulence is at least partly locally generated. Overall, the results of this study suggest that parameterizations of wave-induced mixing could employ relatively simple dynamics in deep water, but may have to handle a wide suite of turbulence generation and transport mechanisms in inshore regions.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThe work was supported by the Killam Foundation, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, the Canadian Foundation for Innovation, the Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences, and the Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans.en_US
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherJohn Wiley & Sonsen_US
dc.relation.urihttps://doi.org/10.1029/2012JC008154
dc.subjectInternal wavesen_US
dc.subjectTurbulenceen_US
dc.subjectEstuaryen_US
dc.titleMeasurements of shoaling internal waves and turbulence in an estuaryen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.description.embargo2013-07-30en_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1029/2012JC008154


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