Modal analysis of vertical array receptions for the Heard Island Feasibility Test
Sperry, Brian J.
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During the 1991 Heard Island Feasibility Test, a vertical hydrophone array deployed off Monterey, CA, recorded transmissions from a low-frequency acoustic source nearly 18,000 km away. By determining the modal structure of the received transmissions, it is possible to characterize the physics of such long range propagation. This thesis focuses on the determination of the modal, or vertical, structure of the signal. It was necessary to first develop a conditioning scheme to address several data quality issues, including very low signal levels (-15 dB SNR on a single channel), large transient spikes, and a limited set of operational channels. Very narrowband filtering was used to obtain a 25 dB increase in SNR. Doppler shifts for each transmission event were predicted from available parameters and were found to be within ±2 mHz of the measured shifts. The modal analysis employed two methods: comparing variations in signal energy with depth to the vertical extent of the modes, and fitting the data using a least squares modal decomposition. The least squares performance given a subsampled basis set of modes was studied and improved upon through the use of diagonal loading. Lack of array orientation data hindered the analysis, and least squares fitting was used to estimate the most likely orientation. The least squares analysis indicated the presence of modes at least up to mode 7, possibly higher. This is significant in that predictions prior to the experiment were that all but the lowest modes would be attenuated by boundary interactions along the path. Results from independent analyses of the same data also support the conclusion that the signal structure is quite complex.
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution May 1994
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