Passive localization of underwater acoustic beacons

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Wojcik, Dennis M.
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Underwater acoustics
This thesis examines the use of a single, omnidirectional hydrophone as a receiving sensor to passively localize an acoustic beacon. The localization problem is presented as a constrained, nonlinear parameter estimation problem, and Lagrange multipliers are introduced to solve for the maximum likelihood estimate of the acoustic beacon's position. An iterative algorithm is developed using range difference measurements to solve for the maximum likelihood estimate of a stationary acoustic beacon's position. This algorithm is then _extended to include linear, constant velocity motion of the acoustic beacon. Finally, design specifications for a receiver to implement the maximum likelihood estimation algorithms are developed. To test the maximum likelihood estimate algorithms, Monte Carlo simulations are conducted. Results from six representative scenarios are presented. Test results show that as the number of range differences used increases, or the distance that the observer travels between received beacon signals increases, the accuracy of the estimated position improves. Also, tests show that accuracy of the estimated beacon position is directly related to the accuracy in which the observer's position is measured. To test the receiver's design specifications, a prototype receiver is built using commonly available components. It is then shown that the prototype receiver meets or exceeds the design specifications.
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution September 1993
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