Adaptive matched field processing in an uncertain propagation environment
Preisig, James C.
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KeywordAdaptive signal processing
Adaptive array processing algorithms have achieved widespread use because they are very effective at rejecting unwanted signals (i.e., controlling sidelobe levels) and in general have very good resolution (i.e., have narrow mainlobes). However, many adaptive high-resolution array processing algorithms suffer a significant degradation in performance in the presence of environmental mismatch. This sensitivity to environmental mismatch is of particular concern in problems such as long-range acoustic array processing in the ocean where the array processor's knowledge of the propagation characteristics of the ocean is imperfect. An Adaptive Minmax Matched Field Processor has been developed which combines adaptive matched field processing and minmax approximation techniques to achieve the effective interference rejection characteristic of adaptive processors while limiting the sensitivity of the processor to environmental mismatch. The derivation of the algorithm is carried out within the framework of minmax signal processing. The optimal array weights are those which minimize the maximum conditional mean squared estimation error at the output of a linear weight-and-sum beamformer. The error is conditioned on the propagation characteristics of the environment and the maximum is evaluated over the range of environmental conditions in which the processor is expected to operate. The theorems developed using this framework characterize the solutions to the minmax array weight problem, and relate the optimal minmax array weights to the solution to a particular type of Wiener filtering problem. This relationship makes possible the development of an efficient algorithm for calculating the optimal minmax array weights and the associated estimate of the signal power emitted by a source at the array focal point. An important feature of this algorithm is that it is guarenteed to converge to an exact solution for the array weights and estimated signal power in a finite number of iterations. The Adaptive Minmax Matched Field Processor can also be interpreted as a two-stage Minimum Variance Distortionless Response (MVDR) Matched Field Processor. The first stage of this processor generates an estimate of the replica vector of the signal emitted by a source at the array focal point, and the second stage is a traditional MVDR Matched Field Processor implemented using the estimate of the signal replica vector. Computer simulations using several environmental models and types of environmental uncertainty have shown that the resolution and interference rejection capability of the Adaptive Minmax Matched Field Processor is close to that of a traditional MVDR Matched Field Processor which has perfect knowledge of the characteristics of the propagation environment and far exceeds that of the Bartlett Matched Field Processor. In addition, the simulations show that the Adaptive Minmax Matched Field Processor is able to maintain it's accuracy, resolution and interference rejection capability when it's knowledge of the environment is only approximate, and is therefore much less sensitive to environmental mismatch than is the traditional MVDR Matched Field Processor.
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution January 1992
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