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dc.contributor.authorGiosan, Liviu  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorCoolen, Marco J. L.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorKaplan, Jed O.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorConstantinescu, Stefan  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorFilip, Florin  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorFilipova-Marinova, Mariana  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorKettner, Albert J.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorThom, Nick  Concept link
dc.identifier.citationScientific Reports 2 (2012): 582en_US
dc.description© The Author(s), 2012. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Scientific Reports 2 (2012): 582, doi:10.1038/srep00582.en_US
dc.description.abstractOver the last century humans have altered the export of fluvial materials leading to significant changes in morphology, chemistry, and biology of the coastal ocean. Here we present sedimentary, paleoenvironmental and paleogenetic evidence to show that the Black Sea, a nearly enclosed marine basin, was affected by land use long before the changes of the Industrial Era. Although watershed hydroclimate was spatially and temporally variable over the last ~3000 years, surface salinity dropped systematically in the Black Sea. Sediment loads delivered by Danube River, the main tributary of the Black Sea, significantly increased as land use intensified in the last two millennia, which led to a rapid expansion of its delta. Lastly, proliferation of diatoms and dinoflagellates over the last five to six centuries, when intensive deforestation occurred in Eastern Europe, points to an anthropogenic pulse of river-borne nutrients that radically transformed the food web structure in the Black Sea.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThis study was supported by grants OISE 0637108, EAR 0952146, OCE 0602423 and OCE 0825020 from the National Science Foundation and grants from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.en_US
dc.publisherNature Publishing Groupen_US
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported*
dc.titleEarly anthropogenic transformation of the Danube-Black Sea systemen_US

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