On the formation and structure of downdrafts in cumulus clouds
Malkus, Joanne Starr
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Downdrafts, exhibiting speeds and mass transports comparable to those of the main updrafts, are a common feature of the cumulus clouds studied by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution's FBI aircraft in the trade-wind region. These downdrafts are observed to be most pronounced at the extreme downshear edge of the visible cloud and are generally stronger the greater the age of the cloud tower, although they are normally present at the edge of even rapidly growing turrets.
Originally issued as Reference No. 54-56, series later renamed WHOI-
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Malkus, Joanne Starr (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1956-08)The moisture and temperature structure of the trade-wind mixed layer are compared under conditions of strong versus weak trade. The data used are two series of aircraft psychrograph soundings made over the ocean near ...
Malkus, Joanne Starr (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1953-05)Cross sections through two trade cumulus clouds are presented, showing the temperatures, turbulence, and water vapor content of the clouds and their nearby environment, the cloud slope, and the external wind profile. ...
Malkus, Joanne Starr; Ronne, Claude (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1954-03)Some extremely large oceanic trade-mind cumulonimbus clouds extending upwards of 40,000 ft. into a region of strong winds and intense vertical shear have been studied by means of time-lapse photography. A simultaneous still ...