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dc.contributor.authorLaufer, Hans  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorChen, Ming  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorJohnson, Michael  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorDemir, Neslihan  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorBobbitt, James M.  Concept link
dc.date.accessioned2012-08-16T18:40:40Z
dc.date.available2012-08-16T18:40:40Z
dc.date.issued2012-06
dc.identifier.citationJournal of Shellfish Research 31 (2012): 555-562en_US
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/1912/5334
dc.descriptionAuthor Posting. © National Shellfisheries Association, 2012. This article is posted here by permission of National Shellfisheries Association for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Shellfish Research 31 (2012): 555-562, doi:10.2983/035.031.0215.en_US
dc.description.abstractAlkylphenols, anthropogenic estrogenic endocrine disruptors in vertebrates, have been found in lobsters (Homarus americanus) in New England sites. We hypothesize that alkylphenols interfere in the shell hardening during molting. We used an in vitro cuticle bioassay to investigate the effects of 2 alkylphenolic compounds—2,4-bis-(dimethylbenzyl) phenol (compound 3) and bisphenol A (BPA; 4,4′-dihydroxy-2,2-diphenylpropane (also referred to as 4,4′-(propan-2-ylidene) diphenol)) on tyrosine incorporation during the hardening of new cuticle following lobster molting. During sclerotization, both alkylphenols and cold tyrosine competed with C14-tyrosine incorporation in a concentration-dependent manner. This process was also phenoloxidase dependent, as treatment with phenylthiourea (PTU; a phenoloxidase inhibitor) significantly decreased C14-tyrosine incorporation. We also found that incorporation of C14-2,4-bis-(dimethylbenzyl) phenol during the shell hardening process was inhibited by cold alkylphenol, cold tyrosine, or PTU, and competition was concentration dependent. Furthermore, incorporation of tyrosine and derivatives into new cuticle decreased with time after molting from 27% incorporation 1 day after a molt to 6% by 4 days after a molt. In nonmolting cuticles, there was no incorporation of alkylphenol or tyrosine derivatives. When lobsters were injected with 2,4-bis-(dimethylbenzyl) phenol during the premolt stage, it took the shells 12 ± 1 days to harden sufficiently to resist deflection by 5 lb pressure exerted by a pressure gauge, compared with 7 ± 1 days for control shells. Thus, shell hardening is delayed significantly by the presence of 2,4-bis-(dimethylbenzyl) phenol. The effects of this compound on shell hardening may result in lobsters' susceptibility to microbial invasion and, therefore, may contribute to the onset of shell disease.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThis research was supported by the National Marine Fisheries Service as the New England Lobster Research Initiative: Lobster Shell Disease under NOAA grant NA06NMF4720100 to the University of Rhode Island Fisheries Center.en_US
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherNational Shellfisheries Associationen_US
dc.relation.urihttps://doi.org/10.2983/035.031.0215
dc.subjectAmerican lobsteren_US
dc.subjectHomarus americanusen_US
dc.subjectAlkylphenolsen_US
dc.subjectBisphenol Aen_US
dc.subjectShell hardeningen_US
dc.subjectSclerotizationen_US
dc.subjectTyrosineen_US
dc.subjectMoltingen_US
dc.subjectLobsteren_US
dc.subjectCuticleen_US
dc.titleThe effect of alkylphenols on lobster shell hardeningen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.2983/035.031.0215


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