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dc.contributor.authorCarman, Mary R.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorBullard, Stephan G.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorRocha, Rosana M.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorLambert, Gretchen  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorDijkstra, Jennifer A.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorRoper, James J.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorGoodwin, Anne M.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorCarman, Mimi M.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorVail, Elisabete M.  Concept link
dc.identifier.citationAquatic Invasions 6 (2011): 371-380en_US
dc.description© The Author(s), 2011. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Aquatic Invasions 6 (2011): 371-380, doi:10.3391/ai.2011.6.4.02.en_US
dc.description.abstractThe Panama Canal region is susceptible to non-native species introductions due to the heavy international shipping traffic through the area. Ascidian introductions are occurring worldwide but little is known about introductions at the Panama Canal. Surveys were conducted in 2002, 2008, and 2009 within the Pacific and Atlantic entrances to the canal. We found a high diversity of ascidians on both sides of the canal, dominated by non-native species; six species occurred at both Pacific and Atlantic Panama sites. This is the first report of Polyandrocarpa anguinea and P. sagamiensis in Atlantic Panama waters and Ascidia incrassata, Ascidia sydneiensis, Botrylloides nigrum, Botryllus planus, Didemnum perlucidum, Diplosoma listerianum, Microcosmus exasperatus, Polyandrocarpa zorritensis, Polyclinum constellatum, Symplegma brakenhielmi, Symplegma rubra, and Trididemnum orbiculatum in Pacific Panama waters. The canal may serve as a major invasion corridor for ascidians and should be monitored over time.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipFunding for this project came from WHOI Ocean Life Institute-Tropical Research Initiative to Carman and CNPq to Rocha.en_US
dc.publisherRegional Euro-Asian Biological Invasions Centre (REABIC)en_US
dc.rightsAttribution 2.0 Generic*
dc.subjectPanama Canalen_US
dc.subjectShipping trafficen_US
dc.subjectSpecies introductionsen_US
dc.titleAscidians at the Pacific and Atlantic entrances to the Panama Canalen_US

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