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ENSO’s impact on the gap wind regions of the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean

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dc.contributor.author Alexander, Michael A.
dc.contributor.author Seo, Hyodae
dc.contributor.author Xie, Shang-Ping
dc.contributor.author Scott, James D.
dc.date.accessioned 2012-06-12T18:30:13Z
dc.date.available 2012-11-15T09:41:50Z
dc.date.issued 2012-05-15
dc.identifier.citation Journal of Climate 25 (2012): 3549–3565 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/1912/5219
dc.description Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2012. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Climate 25 (2012): 3549–3565, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00320.1. en_US
dc.description.abstract The recently released NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) is used to examine the response to ENSO in the northeast tropical Pacific Ocean (NETP) during 1979–2009. The normally cool Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs) associated with wind jets through the gaps in the Central American mountains at Tehuantepec, Papagayo, and Panama are substantially warmer (colder) than the surrounding ocean during El Niño (La Niña) events. Ocean dynamics generate the ENSO-related SST anomalies in the gap wind regions as the surface fluxes damp the SSTs anomalies, while the Ekman heat transport is generally in quadrature with the anomalies. The ENSO-driven warming is associated with large-scale deepening of the thermocline; with the cold thermocline water at greater depths during El Niño in the NETP, it is less likely to be vertically mixed to the surface, particularly in the gap wind regions where the thermocline is normally very close to the surface. The thermocline deepening is enhanced to the south of the Costa Rica Dome in the Papagayo region, which contributes to the local ENSO-driven SST anomalies. The NETP thermocline changes are due to coastal Kelvin waves that initiate westward-propagating Rossby waves, and possibly ocean eddies, rather than by local Ekman pumping. These findings were confirmed with regional ocean model experiments: only integrations that included interannually varying ocean boundary conditions were able to simulate the thermocline deepening and localized warming in the NETP during El Niño events; the simulation with variable surface fluxes, but boundary conditions that repeated the seasonal cycle, did not. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship This research was supported by grants from the NOAA office of Global Programs and the NSF Climate and Global Dynamics Division. en_US
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher American Meteorological Society en_US
dc.relation.uri http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00320.1
dc.subject North Pacific Ocean en_US
dc.subject Atmosphere-ocean interaction en_US
dc.subject ENSO en_US
dc.subject Thermocline circulation en_US
dc.subject Waves, oceanic en_US
dc.subject Ocean models en_US
dc.title ENSO’s impact on the gap wind regions of the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean en_US
dc.type Article en_US
dc.description.embargo 2012-11-15 en_US
dc.identifier.doi 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00320.1


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