|dc.description||Author Posting. © The Author, 2012. Paper presented at the 43rd Middle Atlantic Regional Meeting, American Chemical Society, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD, May 31- June 2, 2012||en_US||
|dc.description.abstract||Molecular interaction can be determined from biological experiments [MARM 2011, #415, p. 252]. Atomic attributes can be shown to be determinative in whole animal experiments under appropriatecircumstances [MARM 2012, #225, p. 169]. The dynamics of replenishing gas interchange in thedistal air spaces of the mammalian lung, and at the atmosphere-lung interface, are shown bydifferences in the extent of pulmonary lesions after the induction of respiratory distress and changesin the mix of the gases inhaled [Biol.Neonat. 20:140-158, 1972]. Such effects have significantbiological and pathogenetic consequences. Hyaline membrane disease (HMD) is a common andsometimes lethal disorder, especially in premature newborns [Clin.Med. 72:477-490, 1965;Int.J.Clin.Pharmacol. 5:20-25, 1971].
There is significant evidence the lesions can be induced by oxygen enrichment [New Eng.J.Med.277:833-837, 1967; Lab.Invest. 21:439-448, 1969]. Bilateral cervical vagotomy (BCV) is a standardmethod of inducing ventilatory distress which leads to HMD [J.Exp.Med. 66:397-404, 1937;Biol.Neonat. 6:340-360, 1964; Biol.Neonat. 11:61-86, 1967]. This model has relatively short median(2.50-7.22 hours) and mean (3.54-13.63 hours) post-BCV life spans [Lab.Invest. 21:439-448, 1969],making it difficult to identify subtle but important effects which might change the result. Thus, aslower model inducing ventilatory distress, previously studied, was again employed, thoracicrestraint (TR). In this model, quarter inch soft cloth adhesive tape is tightened around the lower ribcage of newborn rabbits, reducing the segmental thoracic circumference by 10%, and then placingthem  in a 480 ml clear plastic chamber with 100% oxygen running at 1.0L/min, or  in anidentical chamber resting on four adherent donut magnets with a varied field up to +1200 gauss. Parallel experiments were done using young adult female white mice to eliminate the effect ofventilatory distress induced by TR.
Diatomic oxygen is the only gas in the inhalant mixtures noted which is inherently paramagnetic.
Studies have considered the effects of magnetic fields on flame combustion which is a chemicalreaction involving oxygen [IEEE Trans.Mag. 21:2077-2079, 1985; IEEE Trans.Mag. 23:2752-2754,1987; J.Appl.Phys. 69:2734-2736, 1991; Combus.Flame 93:207-214, 1993]; oxygenation incapillaries [Int.J.Math. Anal. 4:1697-1706, 2010]; and also on organic photochemical reactions[Acc.Chem.Res. 13:369-377, 1980], which, taken together, indicate magnetic influences on the flowand orientation of oxygen as gas and in solution. Two principal objective results from theseexperiments demonstrate an effect of the magnetic field on the whole animal and on the extent oflung injury. The newborn rabbit survival in pure 100% oxygen was 58.56 ± 3.19 hours versus 82.89± 4.91 hours in magnetized oxygen ( p <0.0001); the difference in gross lung injury was 47.46 ± 6.51per cent versus 99.57 ± 0.43 per cent respectively (p<0.0001). The adult female mice in pure 100%mean survival was 53.71 ± 5.40 hours versus 64.57 ± 2.93 hours in magnetized oxygen (p≈0.015);the respective percentages of lung injury were 61.67 ± 10.91 and 55.75 ± 10.45 (n.s.). But, when theresult is considered on the basis of rate of lung injury per hour, magnetized oxygen is much slower. The rates for newborn rabbits were, (magnetized oxygen) 1.3728%/hour and (plain oxygen),1.7969%/hour, a ratio of 1.3088, or 24.6% slower. In mice the rates were 0.8634%/hour and1.2617%/hour respectively, a ratio of 1.462, or 31.5% slower.
A variable magnetic field added to whole animal models of pulmonary oxygen toxicity changes theoutcome in two overt ways:  survival is enhanced, but despite this,  the rate of formation oflung injury is reduced by 24% in newborn rabbits and by 31% in young adult female white mice. Thus, the toxic effect of oxygen is reduced systemically and in the lung by low strength magneticfield effects on inhaled paramagnetic 100% oxygen.||en_US||