Quantifying diffuse and discrete venting at the Tour Eiffel vent site, Lucky Strike hydrothermal field
Escartin, Javier E.
Olive, Jean-Arthur L.
MetadataShow full item record
The relative heat carried by diffuse versus discrete venting of hydrothermal fluids at mid-ocean ridges is poorly constrained and likely varies among vent sites. Estimates of the proportion of heat carried by diffuse flow range from 0% to 100% of the total axial heat flux. Here, we present an approach that integrates imagery, video, and temperature measurements to accurately estimate this partitioning at a single vent site, Tour Eiffel in the Lucky Strike hydrothermal field along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Fluid temperatures, photographic mosaics of the vent site, and video sequences of fluid flow were acquired during the Bathyluck'09 cruise (Fall, 2009) and the Momarsat'10 cruise (Summer, 2010) to the Lucky Strike hydrothermal field by the ROV Victor6000 aboard the French research vessel the “Pourquoi Pas”? (IFREMER, France). We use two optical methods to calculate the velocities of imaged hydrothermal fluids: (1) for diffuse venting, Diffuse Flow Velocimetry tracks the displacement of refractive index anomalies through time, and (2) for discrete jets, Particle Image Velocimetry tracks eddies by cross-correlation of pixel intensities between subsequent images. To circumvent video blurring associated with rapid velocities at vent orifices, exit velocities at discrete vents are calculated from the best fit of the observed velocity field to a model of a steady state turbulent plume where we vary the model vent radius and fluid exit velocity. Our results yield vertical velocities of diffuse effluent between 0.9 cm s−1 and 11.1 cm s−1 for fluid temperatures between 3°C and 33.5°C above that of ambient seawater, and exit velocities of discrete jets between 22 cm s−1 and 119 cm s−1 for fluid temperatures between 200°C and 301°C above ambient seawater. Using the calculated fluid velocities, temperature measurements, and photo mosaics of the actively venting areas, we calculate a heat flux due to diffuse venting from thin fractures of 3.15 ± 2.22 MW, discrete venting of 1.07 ± 0.66 MW, and, by incorporating previous estimates of diffuse heat flux density from Tour Eiffel, diffuse flux from the main sulfide mound of ∼15.6 MW. We estimate that the total integrated heat flux from the Tour Eiffel site is 19.82 ± 2.88 MW and that the ratio of diffuse to discrete heat flux is ∼18. We discuss the implication of these results for the characterization of different vent sites within Lucky Strike and in the context of a compilation of all available measurements of the ratio of diffuse to discrete heat flux.
Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2012. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 13 (2012): Q04008, doi:10.1029/2011GC003991.
Suggested CitationArticle: Mittelstaedt, Eric, Escartin, Javier E., Gracias, Nuno, Olive, Jean-Arthur L., Barreyre, Thibaut, Davaille, Anne, Cannat, Mathilde, Garcia, Rafael, "Quantifying diffuse and discrete venting at the Tour Eiffel vent site, Lucky Strike hydrothermal field", Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 13 (2012): Q04008, DOI:10.1029/2011GC003991, https://hdl.handle.net/1912/5194
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Structure, temporal evolution, and heat flux estimates from the Lucky Strike deep-sea hydrothermal field derived from seafloor image mosaics Barreyre, Thibaut; Escartin, Javier E.; Garcia, Rafael; Cannat, Mathilde; Mittelstaedt, Eric; Prados, Ricard (American Geophysical Union, 2012-04-19)Here we demonstrate with a study of the Lucky Strike hydrothermal field that image mosaicing over large seafloor areas is feasible with new image processing techniques, and that repeated surveys allow temporal studies of ...
Globally aligned photomosaic of the Lucky Strike hydrothermal vent field (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 37°18.5′N) : release of georeferenced data, mosaic construction, and viewing software Escartin, Javier E.; Garcia, Rafael; Delaunoy, O.; Ferrer, J.; Gracias, Nuno; Elibol, A.; Cufi, X.; Neumann, L.; Fornari, Daniel J.; Humphris, Susan E.; Renard, J. (American Geophysical Union, 2008-12-05)We present a georeferenced photomosaic of the Lucky Strike hydrothermal vent field (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 37°18′N). The photomosaic was generated from digital photographs acquired using the ARGO II seafloor imaging system ...
Heat flow variations on a slowly accreting ridge : constraints on the hydrothermal and conductive cooling for the Lucky Strike segment (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 37°N) Lucazeau, Francis; Bonneville, Alain; Escartin, Javier E.; von Herzen, Richard P.; Gouze, Philippe; Carton, Helene; Cannat, Mathilde; Vidal, Valerie; Adam, Claudia (American Geophysical Union, 2006-07-27)We report 157 closely spaced heat flow measurements along the Lucky Strike segment in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) for ages of the ocean floor between 0 and 11 Ma. On the eastern flank of a volcanic plateau delimiting ...