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dc.contributor.authorOlabarrieta, Maitane
dc.contributor.authorWarner, John C.
dc.contributor.authorArmstrong, Brandy
dc.contributor.authorZambon, Joseph B.
dc.contributor.authorHe, Ruoying
dc.date.accessioned2012-04-10T14:44:33Z
dc.date.available2012-04-10T14:44:33Z
dc.date.issued2011-12-30
dc.identifier.citationOcean Modelling 43-44 (2012): 112–137en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1912/5124
dc.descriptionThis paper is not subject to U.S. copyright. The definitive version was published in Ocean Modelling 43-44 (2012): 112–137, doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2011.12.008.en_US
dc.description.abstractThe coupled ocean–atmosphere–wave–sediment transport (COAWST) modeling system was used to investigate atmosphere–ocean–wave interactions in November 2009 during Hurricane Ida and its subsequent evolution to Nor’Ida, which was one of the most costly storm systems of the past two decades. One interesting aspect of this event is that it included two unique atmospheric extreme conditions, a hurricane and a nor’easter storm, which developed in regions with different oceanographic characteristics. Our modeled results were compared with several data sources, including GOES satellite infrared data, JASON-1 and JASON-2 altimeter data, CODAR measurements, and wave and tidal information from the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) and the National Tidal Database. By performing a series of numerical runs, we were able to isolate the effect of the interaction terms between the atmosphere (modeled with Weather Research and Forecasting, the WRF model), the ocean (modeled with Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS)), and the wave propagation and generation model (modeled with Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN)). Special attention was given to the role of the ocean surface roughness. Three different ocean roughness closure models were analyzed: DGHQ (which is based on wave age), TY2001 (which is based on wave steepness), and OOST (which considers both the effects of wave age and steepness). Including the ocean roughness in the atmospheric module improved the wind intensity estimation and therefore also the wind waves, surface currents, and storm surge amplitude. For example, during the passage of Hurricane Ida through the Gulf of Mexico, the wind speeds were reduced due to wave-induced ocean roughness, resulting in better agreement with the measured winds. During Nor’Ida, including the wave-induced surface roughness changed the form and dimension of the main low pressure cell, affecting the intensity and direction of the winds. The combined wave age- and wave steepness-based parameterization (OOST) provided the best results for wind and wave growth prediction. However, the best agreement between the measured (CODAR) and computed surface currents and storm surge values was obtained with the wave steepness-based roughness parameterization (TY2001), although the differences obtained with respect to DGHQ were not significant. The influence of sea surface temperature (SST) fields on the atmospheric boundary layer dynamics was examined; in particular, we evaluated how the SST affects wind wave generation, surface currents and storm surges. The integrated hydrograph and integrated wave height, parameters that are highly correlated with the storm damage potential, were found to be highly sensitive to the ocean surface roughness parameterization.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipPrimary funding for this study was furnished by the US Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, under the Carolinas Coastal Processes Project.en_US
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherElsevier B.V.en_US
dc.relation.urihttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocemod.2011.12.008
dc.subjectCOAWST modelen_US
dc.subjectHurricaneen_US
dc.subjectTropical stormen_US
dc.subjectExtra tropical stormen_US
dc.subjectRunupen_US
dc.subjectStorm surgeen_US
dc.subjectNor’Idaen_US
dc.subjectCoupled modelen_US
dc.subjectAir–sea interactionen_US
dc.subjectWave ageen_US
dc.subjectWave steepnessen_US
dc.subjectOcean wave roughnessen_US
dc.subjectSWANen_US
dc.subjectROMSen_US
dc.subjectWRFen_US
dc.titleOcean–atmosphere dynamics during Hurricane Ida and Nor’Ida : an application of the coupled ocean–atmosphere–wave–sediment transport (COAWST) modeling systemen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.ocemod.2011.12.008


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