The impact of the North Atlantic Oscillation on the uptake and accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 by North Atlantic Ocean mode waters
Figure S1: Comparison between hydrographic observations and model output of Canthro along the north-south A16 transect in the Atlantic Ocean. (1.069Mb)
Figure S2: Comparison between hydrographic observations and model output along the north-south A16 transect in the Atlantic Ocean. (1.883Mb)
Figure S4: Sensitivity of model isopycnal band anthropogenic carbon inventories to variable physics. (1.442Mb)
Figure S6: Change in anthropogenic carbon accumulation rate along subpolar mode water isopycnal bands. (862.2Kb)
Table S1: Monthly coefficient of variation for the subtropical and subpolar gyre carbon pools and water mass volumes. (188.5Kb)
Table S1: Monthly coefficient of variation for the subtropical and subpolar gyre carbon pools and water mass volumes. (68.29Kb)
Text S1: These four sections include additional information pertaining to the analysis presented in the main text. (160.5Kb)
Levine, Naomi M.
Doney, Scott C.
Lima, Ivan D.
Bates, Nicholas R.
Feely, Richard A.
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KeywordNorth Atlantic Oscillation; Anthropogenic carbon; Carbon cycle; Climate change; Global climate model; Mode waters
The North Atlantic Ocean accounts for about 25% of the global oceanic anthropogenic carbon sink. This basin experiences significant interannual variability primarily driven by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). A suite of biogeochemical model simulations is used to analyze the impact of interannual variability on the uptake and storage of contemporary and anthropogenic carbon (Canthro) in the North Atlantic Ocean. Greater winter mixing during positive NAO years results in increased mode water formation and subsequent increases in subtropical and subpolar Canthro inventories. Our analysis suggests that changes in mode water Canthro inventories are primarily due to changes in water mass volumes driven by variations in water mass transformation rates rather than local air-sea CO2 exchange. This suggests that a significant portion of anthropogenic carbon found in the ocean interior may be derived from surface waters advected into water formation regions rather than from local gas exchange. Therefore, changes in climate modes, such as the NAO, may alter the residence time of anthropogenic carbon in the ocean by altering the rate of water mass transformation. In addition, interannual variability in Canthro storage increases the difficulty of Canthro detection and attribution through hydrographic observations, which are limited by sparse sampling of subsurface waters in time and space.
Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2011. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Global Biogeochemical Cycles 25 (2011): GB3022, doi:10.1029/2010GB003892.
Suggested CitationArticle: Levine, Naomi M., Doney, Scott C., Lima, Ivan D., Wanninkhof, Rik, Bates, Nicholas R., Feely, Richard A., "The impact of the North Atlantic Oscillation on the uptake and accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 by North Atlantic Ocean mode waters", Global Biogeochemical Cycles 25 (2011): GB3022, DOI:10.1029/2010GB003892, https://hdl.handle.net/1912/4857
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