The ability of many animals to spontaneously regenerate their body parts has intrigued scientific observers for centuries. Although humans share the same basic genes and pathways, we have somehow lost these regenerative capacities, which leads to significant health costs. An understanding of tissue and organ regeneration in lower animals holds great promise for translating to medical treatments for serious human conditions, including spinal cord injury, diabetes, organ failure, and degenerative neural diseases such as Alzheimer’s.

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  • AP-1cFos/JunB/miR-200a regulate the pro-regenerative glial cell response during axolotl spinal cord regeneration 

    Sabin, Keith Z.; Jiang, Peng; Gearhart, Micah D.; Stewart, Ron; Echeverri, Karen (Nature Research, 2019-03-06)
    Salamanders have the remarkable ability to functionally regenerate after spinal cord transection. In response to injury, GFAP+ glial cells in the axolotl spinal cord proliferate and migrate to replace the missing neural ...
  • Understanding regeneration at different scales. 

    MacCord, Kate; Maienschein, Jane (eLife Sciences Publications, 2019-03-13)
    Regeneration occurs at many different levels in nature, from individual organisms (notably earthworms and hydra), through communities of microbes, to ecosystems such as forests. Researchers in the life sciences and the ...
  • Dynamic pigmentary and structural coloration within cephalopod chromatophore organs 

    Williams, Thomas L.; Senft, Stephen L.; Yeo, Jingjie; Martín-Martínez, Francisco J.; Kuzirian, Alan M.; Martin, Camille A.; DiBona, Christopher W.; Chen, Chun-Teh; Dinneen, Sean R.; Nguyen, Hieu T.; Gomes, Conor M.; Rosenthal, Joshua J. C.; MacManes, Matthew D.; Chu, Feixia; Buehler, Markus J.; Hanlon, Roger T.; Deravi, Leila F. (Nature Research, 2019-03-01)
    Chromatophore organs in cephalopod skin are known to produce ultra-fast changes in appearance for camouflage and communication. Light-scattering pigment granules within chromatocytes have been presumed to be the sole source ...
  • Elaborate pupils in skates may help camouflage the eye 

    Youn, Sean; Okinaka, Corey; Mäthger, Lydia M. (Company of Biologists, 2019-01-21)
    The skate Leucoraja erinacea is a bottom-dweller that buries into the substrate with its eyes protruding, revealing elaborately shaped pupils. It has been suggested that such pupil shapes may camouflage the eye, yet this ...
  • Regenerative capacity in the lamprey spinal cord is not altered after a repeated transection 

    Hanslik, Kendra; Allen, Scott R.; Harkenrider, Tessa L.; Fogerson, Stephanie M.; Guadarrama, Eduardo; Morgan, Jennifer R. (Public Library of Science, 2019-01-30)
    The resilience of regeneration in vertebrates is not very well understood. Yet understanding if tissues can regenerate after repeated insults, and identifying limitations, is important for elucidating the underlying ...
  • Ocean deoxygenation and zooplankton: Very small oxygen differences matter 

    Wishner, Karen F.; Seibel, Brad A.; Roman, Chris; Deutsch, Curtis; Outram, Dawn; Shaw, C. T.; Birk, Matthew A.; Mislan, K. A. S.; Adams, T. J.; Moore, D.; Riley, S. (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2018-12-19)
    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), large midwater regions of very low oxygen, are expected to expand as a result of climate change. While oxygen is known to be important in structuring midwater ecosystems, a precise and mechanistic ...
  • Light control of G protein signaling pathways by a novel photopigment 

    Osorno, Tomás; Arenas, Oscar; Ramírez-Suarez, Nelson J.; Echeverry, Fabio A.; Gomez, Maria del Pilar; Nasi, Enrico (Public Library of Science, 2018-10-01)
    Channelopsins and photo-regulated ion channels make it possible to use light to control electrical activity of cells. This powerful approach has lead to a veritable explosion of applications, though it is limited to changing ...
  • Mapping birefringence in three dimensions using polarized light field microscopy : the case of the juvenile clamshell 

    Tran, Mai Thi; Oldenbourg, Rudolf (2018-05)
    We report methods to generate three dimensional maps of birefringence, its position and orientation in juvenile shells of the Atlantic hard clamshell (Mercenaria mercenaria). For measuring the retardance and optic axis ...
  • Axonal ensheathment in the nervous system of lamprey : implications for the evolution of myelinating glia 

    Weil, Marie-Theres; Heibeck, Saskia; Töpperwien, Mareike; tom Dieck, Susanne; Ruhwedel, Torben; Salditt, Tim; Rodicio, María Celina; Morgan, Jennifer R.; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Möbius, Wiebke; Werner, Hauke B. (Society for Neuroscience, 2018-07-18)
    In the nervous system, myelination of axons enables rapid impulse conduction and is a specialized function of glial cells. Myelinating glia are the last cell type to emerge in the evolution of vertebrate nervous systems, ...
  • Molecular and functional identification of a novel photopigment in Pecten ciliary photoreceptors 

    Arenas, Oscar; Osorno, Tomás; Malagón, Gerardo; Pulido, Camila; Gomez, Maria del Pilar; Nasi, Enrico (Rockefeller University Press, 2018-01-26)
    The two basic animal photoreceptor types, ciliary and microvillar, use different light-transduction schemes: their photopigments couple to Gt versus Gq proteins, respectively, to either mobilize cyclic nucleotides or trigger ...
  • Elesclomol restores mitochondrial function in genetic models of copper deficiency 

    Soma, Shivatheja; Latimer, Andrew J.; Chun, Haarin; Vicary, Alison C.; Timbalia, Shrishiv A.; Boulet, Aren; Rahn, Jennifer J.; Chan, Sherine S. L.; Leary, Scot C.; Kim, Byung-Eun; Gitlin, Jonathan D.; Gohil, Vishal M. (National Academy of Sciences, 2018-07-23)
    Copper is an essential cofactor of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Inherited loss-of-function mutations in several genes encoding proteins required for copper delivery ...
  • GABA promotes survival and axonal regeneration in identifiable descending neurons after spinal cord injury in larval lampreys 

    Romaus-Sanjurjo, Daniel; Ledo-García, Rocío; Fernández-López, Blanca; Hanslik, Kendra; Morgan, Jennifer R.; Barreiro-Iglesias, Antón; Rodicio, María Celina (Nature Publishing Group, 2018-06-28)
    The poor regenerative capacity of descending neurons is one of the main causes of the lack of recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). Thus, it is of crucial importance to find ways to promote axonal regeneration. In ...
  • Effects of capture surface morphology on feeding success of scyphomedusae : a comparative study 

    Bezio, Nicholas; Costello, John H.; Perry, Elijah; Colin, Sean P. (Inter-Research, 2018-05-28)
    Predation by feeding-current foraging medusae can have detrimental effects on prey populations. Understanding the mechanics that control prey selection and ingestion rates with different types of prey enables us to better ...
  • Impacts of increased α-synuclein on clathrin-mediated endocytosis at synapses : implications for neurodegenerative diseases 

    Medeiros, Audrey T.; Bubacco, Luigi; Morgan, Jennifer R. (Wolters Kluwer, 2018-04-27)
    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease that impacts the lives of millions of people worldwide. A pathological hallmark of PD, as well as dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and several Alzheimer's disease ...
  • mRNA structure determines specificity of a polyQ-driven phase separation 

    Langdon, Erin M.; Qiu, Yupeng; Ghanbari Niaki, Amirhossein; McLaughlin, Grace A.; Weidmann, Chase; Gerbich, Therese M.; Smith, Jean A.; Crutchley, John M.; Termini, Christina M.; Weeks, Kevin M.; Myong, Sua; Gladfelter, Amy S. (2018-04)
    RNA promotes liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) to build membrane-less compartments in cells. How distinct molecular compositions are established and maintained in these liquid compartments is unknown. Here we report ...
  • Transgenic Xenopus laevis line for in vivo labeling of nephrons within the kidney 

    Corkins, Mark E.; Hanania, Hannah L.; Krneta-Stankic, Vanja; DeLay, Bridget D.; Pearl, Esther J.; Lee, Moonsup; Ji, Hong; Davidson, Alan J.; Horb, Marko E.; Miller, Rachel K. (MDPI AG, 2018-04-06)
    Xenopus laevis embryos are an established model for studying kidney development. The nephron structure and genetic pathways that regulate nephrogenesis are conserved between Xenopus and humans, allowing for the study of ...
  • Tidal and diel orchestration of behaviour and gene expression in an intertidal mollusc 

    Schnytzer, Yisrael; Simon-Blecher, Noa; Li, J.; Ben-Asher, H. Waldman; Salmon-Divon, Mali; Achituv, Yair; Hughes, Michael E.; Levy, Oren (Nature Publishing Group, 2018-03-20)
    Intertidal inhabitants are exposed to the 24-hour solar day, and the 12.4 hour rising and falling of the tides. One or both of these cycles govern intertidal organisms’ behaviour and physiology, yet little is known about ...
  • Microvillar and ciliary defects in zebrafish lacking an actin-binding bioactive peptide amidating enzyme 

    Kumar, Dhivya; Thomason, Rebecca T.; Yankova, Maya; Gitlin, Jonathan D.; Mains, Richard E.; Eipper, Betty A.; King, Stephen M. (Nature Publishing Group, 2018-03-14)
    The assembly of membranous extensions such as microvilli and cilia in polarized cells is a tightly regulated, yet poorly understood, process. Peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), a membrane enzyme essential for ...
  • Targeted knockout of lhx1 via CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing in the Xenopus laevis kidney 

    DeLay, Bridget D.; Corkins, Mark E.; Hanania, Hannah L.; Salanga, Matthew C.; Deng, Jian Min; Sudou, Norihiro; Taira, Masanori; Horb, Marko E.; Miller, Rachel K. (2017-09-29)
    Studying genes involved in organogenesis is often difficult because many of these genes are also essential for early development. The allotetraploid frog, Xenopus laevis, is commonly used to study developmental processes, ...
  • Cell lineage and cell cycling analyses of the 4d micromere using live imaging in the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii 

    Ozpolat, B. Duygu; Handberg-Thorsager, Mette; Vervoort, Michel; Balavoine, Guillaume (eLife, 2017-12-12)
    Cell lineage, cell cycle, and cell fate are tightly associated in developmental processes, but in vivo studies at single-cell resolution showing the intricacies of these associations are rare due to technical limitations. ...

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