The ability of many animals to spontaneously regenerate their body parts has intrigued scientific observers for centuries. Although humans share the same basic genes and pathways, we have somehow lost these regenerative capacities, which leads to significant health costs. An understanding of tissue and organ regeneration in lower animals holds great promise for translating to medical treatments for serious human conditions, including spinal cord injury, diabetes, organ failure, and degenerative neural diseases such as Alzheimer’s.

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  • Radial alignment of microtubules through tubulin polymerization in an evaporating droplet 

    Keya, Jakia Jannat; Kudoh, Hiroki; Kabir, Arif Md. Rashedul; Inoue, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Nobuyoshi; Tani, Tomomi; Kakugo, Akira; Shikinaka, Kazuhiro (Public Library of Science, 2020-04-10)
    We report the formation of spherulites from droplets of highly concentrated tubulin solution via nucleation and subsequent polymerization to microtubules (MTs) under water evaporation by heating. Radial alignment of MTs ...
  • Spatially regulated editing of genetic information within a neuron 

    Vallecillo-Viejo, Isabel C.; Liscovitch-Brauer, Noa; Diaz Quiroz, Juan F.; Montiel-González, Maria Fernanda; Nemes, Sonya E.; Rangan, Kavita J.; Levinson, Simon R.; Eisenberg, Eli; Rosenthal, Joshua J. C. (Oxford University Press, 2020-03-23)
    In eukaryotic cells, with the exception of the specialized genomes of mitochondria and plastids, all genetic information is sequestered within the nucleus. This arrangement imposes constraints on how the information can ...
  • FXR1 splicing is important for muscle development and biomolecular condensates in muscle cells 

    Smith, Jean A.; Curry, Ennessa G.; Blue, R. Eric; Roden, Christine; Dundon, Samantha E.R.; Rodríguez-Vargas, Anthony; Jordan, Danielle C.; Chen, Xiaomin; Lyons, Shawn M.; Crutchley, John M.; Anderson, Paul; Horb, Marko E.; Gladfelter, Amy S.; Giudice, Jimena (Rockefeller University Press, 2020-03-13)
    Fragile-X mental retardation autosomal homologue-1 (FXR1) is a muscle-enriched RNA-binding protein. FXR1 depletion is perinatally lethal in mice, Xenopus, and zebrafish; however, the mechanisms driving these phenotypes ...
  • A de novo reference transcriptome for Bolitoglossa vallecula, an Andean mountain salamander in Colombia 

    Arenas Gómez, Claudia Marcela; Woodcock, M. Ryan; Smith, Jeramiah J.; Voss, S. Randal; Delgado, Jean Paul (Elsevier, 2020-02-11)
    The amphibian order Caudata, contains several important model species for biological research. However, there is need to generate transcriptome data from representative species of the primary salamander families. Here we ...
  • 12-h clock regulation of genetic information flow by XBP1s 

    Pan, Yinghong; Ballance, Heather; Meng, Huan; Gonzalez, Naomi; Kim, Sam-Moon; Abdurehman, Leymaan; York, Brian; Chen, Xi; Schnytzer, Yisrael; Levy, Oren; Dacso, Clifford C.; McClung, Colleen A.; O’Malley, Bert W.; Liu, Silvia; Zhu, Bokai (Public Library of Science, 2020-01-14)
    Our group recently characterized a cell-autonomous mammalian 12-h clock independent from the circadian clock, but its function and mechanism of regulation remain poorly understood. Here, we show that in mouse liver, ...
  • The various routes to functional regeneration in the central nervous system 

    Echeverri, Karen (Nature Research, 2020-01-29)
    The axolotl is a type of Mexican salamander with astonishing regenerative capacity1. In our recent paper, we identified a signaling heterodimer that is formed directly after injury in the glial cells adjacent to the injury ...
  • A draft genome sequence of the elusive giant squid, Architeuthis dux 

    da Fonseca, Rute R.; Couto, Alvarina; Machado, Andre M.; Brejova, Brona; Albertin, Carolin B.; Silva, Filipe; Gardner, Paul; Baril, Tobias; Hayward, Alex; Campos, Alexandre; Ribeiro, Ângela M.; Barrio-Hernandez, Inigo; Hoving, Henk-Jan; Tafur-Jimenez, Ricardo; Chu, Chong; Frazão, Barbara; Petersen, Bent; Peñaloza, Fernando; Musacchia, Francesco; Alexander, Graham C., Jr.; Osório, Hugo; Winkelmann, Inger; Simakov, Oleg; Rasmussen, Simon; Rahman, M. Ziaur; Pisani, Davide; Vinther, Jakob; Jarvis, Erich; Zhang, Guojie; Strugnell, Jan M.; Castro, L. Filipe C.; Fedrigo, Olivier; Patricio, Mateus; Li, Qiye; Rocha, Sara; Antunes, Agostinho; Wu, Yufeng; Ma, Bin; Sanges, Remo; Vinar, Tomas; Blagoev, Blagoy; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Nielsen, Rasmus; Gilbert, M. Thomas P. (Oxford University Press, 2020-01-16)
    Background: The giant squid (Architeuthis dux; Steenstrup, 1857) is an enigmatic giant mollusc with a circumglobal distribution in the deep ocean, except in the high Arctic and Antarctic waters. The elusiveness of the ...
  • Hsc70 ameliorates the vesicle recycling defects caused by excess alpha-synuclein at synapses 

    Banks, Susan M. L.; Medeiros, Audrey T.; McQuillan, Molly; Busch, David J.; Ibarraran-Viniegra, Ana Sofia; Sousa, Rui; Lafer, Eileen M.; Morgan, Jennifer R. (Society for Neuroscience, 2020-01-15)
    α-Synuclein overexpression and aggregation are linked to Parkinson’s disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and several other neurodegenerative disorders. In addition to effects in the cell body, α-synuclein ...
  • Specialization for rapid excitation in fast squid tentacle muscle involves action potentials absent in slow arm muscle 

    Gilly, William; Renken, Corbin; Rosenthal, Joshua J. C.; Kier, William M. (Company of Biologists, 2020-01-03)
    An important aspect of the performance of many fast muscle fiber types is rapid excitation. Previous research on the cross-striated muscle fibers responsible for the rapid tentacle strike in squid has revealed the ...
  • A scalable culturing system for the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii 

    Kuehn, Emily; Stockinger, Alexander W.; Girard, Jerome; Raible, Florian; Ozpolat, B. Duygu (Public Library of Science, 2019-12-05)
    Platynereis dumerilii is a marine segmented worm (annelid) with externally fertilized embryos and it can be cultured for the full life cycle in the laboratory. The accessibility of embryos and larvae combined with the ...
  • Thrust generation during steady swimming and acceleration from rest in anguilliform swimmers 

    Du Clos, Kevin; Dabiri, John O.; Costello, John H.; Colin, Sean P.; Morgan, Jennifer R.; Fogerson, Stephanie M.; Gemmell, Brad J. (Company of Biologists, 2019-11-18)
    Escape swimming is a crucial behavior by which undulatory swimmers evade potential threats. The hydrodynamics of escape swimming have not been well studied, particularly for anguilliform swimmers, such as the sea lamprey ...
  • Coupled genomic evolutionary histories as signatures of organismal innovations in cephalopods: co-evolutionary signatures across levels of genome organization may shed light on functional linkage and origin of cephalopod novelties 

    Ritschard, Elena A.; Whitelaw, Brooke; Albertin, Caroline B.; Cooke, Ira R.; Strugnell, Jan M.; Simakov, Oleg (Wiley, 2019-10-30)
    How genomic innovation translates into organismal organization remains largely unanswered. Possessing the largest invertebrate nervous system, in conjunction with many species‐specific organs, coleoid cephalopods (octopuses, ...
  • The synaptic vesicle cycle revisited: New insights into the modes and mechanisms 

    Chanaday, Natali L.; Cousin, Michael A.; Milosevic, Ira; Watanabe, Shigeki; Morgan, Jennifer R. (Society for Neuroscience, 2019-10-16)
    Neurotransmission is sustained by endocytosis and refilling of synaptic vesicles (SVs) locally within the presynapse. Until recently, a consensus formed that after exocytosis, SVs are recovered by either fusion pore closure ...
  • Venomic, transcriptomic, and bioactivity analyses of Pamphobeteus verdolaga venom reveal complex disulfide-rich peptides that modulate calcium channels 

    Estrada-Gomez, Sebastian; Caldas Cardoso, Fernanda; Vargas-Muñoz, Leidy Johana; Quintana-Castillo, Juan Carlos; Arenas Gómez, Claudia Marcela; Pineda, Sandy Steffany; Saldarriaga-Cordoba, Monica Maria (MDPI, 2019-08-27)
    Pamphobeteus verdolaga is a recently described Theraphosidae spider from the Andean region of Colombia. Previous reports partially characterized its venom profile. In this study, we conducted a detailed analysis that ...
  • Hypoxia has a lasting effect on fast-startle behavior of the tropical fish Haemulon plumieri 

    Sánchez-García, Mayra A.; Zottoli, Steven J.; Roberson, Loretta M. (University of Chicago Press, 2019-07-16)
    Anthropogenic activities and climate change have resulted in an increase of hypoxic conditions in nearshore ecosystems worldwide. Depending on the persistence of a hypoxic event, the survival of aquatic animals can be ...
  • Computational history of knowledge: Challenges and opportunities 

    Laubichler, Manfred D.; Maienschein, Jane; Renn, Jurgen (University of Chicago Press, 2019-09)
    So far, the twenty-first century has been defined by an ever-increasing availability of digital data and substantial advances in computational methods. Taken together, these developments have already affected all aspects ...
  • Introduction 

    Gibson, Abraham; Laubichler, Manfred D.; Maienschein, Jane (University of Chicago Press, 2019-09)
    Digital technologies have transformed both the historical record and the historical profession. This Focus section examines how computational methods have influenced, and will influence, the history of science. The essays ...
  • Pectin chemistry and cellulose crystallinity govern pavement cell morphogenesis in a multi-step mechanism 

    Altartouri, Bara; Bidhendi, Amir J.; Tani, Tomomi; Suzuki, Johnny; Conrad, Christina; Chebli, Youssef; Liu, Na; Karunakaran, Chithra; Scarcelli, Giuliano; Geitmann, Anja (American Society of Plant Biologists, 2019-08-29)
    Simple plant cell morphologies, such as cylindrical shoot cells, are determined by the extensibility pattern of the primary cell wall, which is thought to be largely dominated by cellulose microfibrils, but the mechanism ...
  • Construction and composition of the squid pen from Doryteuthis pealeii 

    Messerli, Mark A.; Raihan, M. Jahir; Kobylkevich, Brian M.; Benson, Austin C.; Bruening, Kristi S.; Shribak, Michael; Rosenthal, Joshua J. C.; Sohn, Joel J. (University of Chicago Press, 2019-07-08)
    The pen, or gladius, of the squid is an internalized shell. It serves as a site of attachment for important muscle groups and as a protective barrier for the visceral organs. The pen’s durability and flexibility are derived ...
  • A composition-dependent molecular clutch between T cell signaling condensates and actin 

    Ditlev, Jonathon; Vega, Anthony R; Köster, Darius Vasco; Su, Xiaolei; Tani, Tomomi; Lakoduk, Ashley M; Vale, Ronald D.; Mayor, Satyajit; Jaqaman, Khuloud; Rosen, Michael K. (eLife Sciences Publications, 2019-07-03)
    During T cell activation, biomolecular condensates form at the immunological synapse (IS) through multivalency-driven phase separation of LAT, Grb2, Sos1, SLP-76, Nck, and WASP. These condensates move radially at the IS, ...

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