The ability of many animals to spontaneously regenerate their body parts has intrigued scientific observers for centuries. Although humans share the same basic genes and pathways, we have somehow lost these regenerative capacities, which leads to significant health costs. An understanding of tissue and organ regeneration in lower animals holds great promise for translating to medical treatments for serious human conditions, including spinal cord injury, diabetes, organ failure, and degenerative neural diseases such as Alzheimer’s.

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  • Computational history of knowledge: Challenges and opportunities 

    Laubichler, Manfred D.; Maienschein, Jane; Renn, Jurgen (University of Chicago Press, 2019-09)
    So far, the twenty-first century has been defined by an ever-increasing availability of digital data and substantial advances in computational methods. Taken together, these developments have already affected all aspects ...
  • Introduction 

    Gibson, Abraham; Laubichler, Manfred D.; Maienschein, Jane (University of Chicago Press, 2019-09)
    Digital technologies have transformed both the historical record and the historical profession. This Focus section examines how computational methods have influenced, and will influence, the history of science. The essays ...
  • Pectin chemistry and cellulose crystallinity govern pavement cell morphogenesis in a multi-step mechanism 

    Altartouri, Bara; Bidhendi, Amir J.; Tani, Tomomi; Suzuki, Johnny; Conrad, Christina; Chebli, Youssef; Liu, Na; Karunakaran, Chithra; Scarcelli, Giuliano; Geitmann, Anja (American Society of Plant Biologists, 2019-08-29)
    Simple plant cell morphologies, such as cylindrical shoot cells, are determined by the extensibility pattern of the primary cell wall, which is thought to be largely dominated by cellulose microfibrils, but the mechanism ...
  • Construction and composition of the squid pen from Doryteuthis pealeii 

    Messerli, Mark A.; Raihan, M. Jahir; Kobylkevich, Brian M.; Benson, Austin C.; Bruening, Kristi S.; Shribak, Michael; Rosenthal, Joshua J. C.; Sohn, Joel J. (University of Chicago Press, 2019-07-08)
    The pen, or gladius, of the squid is an internalized shell. It serves as a site of attachment for important muscle groups and as a protective barrier for the visceral organs. The pen’s durability and flexibility are derived ...
  • A composition-dependent molecular clutch between T cell signaling condensates and actin 

    Ditlev, Jonathon; Vega, Anthony R; Köster, Darius Vasco; Su, Xiaolei; Tani, Tomomi; Lakoduk, Ashley M; Vale, Ronald D.; Mayor, Satyajit; Jaqaman, Khuloud; Rosen, Michael K. (eLife Sciences Publications, 2019-07-03)
    During T cell activation, biomolecular condensates form at the immunological synapse (IS) through multivalency-driven phase separation of LAT, Grb2, Sos1, SLP-76, Nck, and WASP. These condensates move radially at the IS, ...
  • Single nucleosome imaging reveals loose genome chromatin networks via active RNA polymerase II. 

    Nagashima, Ryosuke; Hibino, Kayo; Ashwin, S. S.; Babokhov, Michael; Fujishiro, Shin; Imai, Ryosuke; Nozaki, Tadasu; Tamura, Sachiko; Tani, Tomomi; Kimura, Hiroshi; Shribak, Michael; Kanemaki, Masato T.; Sasai, Masaki; Maeshima, Kazuhiro (Rockefeller University Press, 2019-03-01)
    Although chromatin organization and dynamics play a critical role in gene transcription, how they interplay remains unclear. To approach this issue, we investigated genome-wide chromatin behavior under various transcriptional ...
  • Xenopus resources: Transgenic, inbred and mutant animals, training opportunities, and web-based support. 

    Horb, Marko E.; Wlizla, Marcin; Abu-Daya, Anita; McNamara, Sean; Gajdasik, Dominika; Igawa, Takeshi; Suzuki, Atsushi; Ogino, Hajime; Noble, Anna; Robert, Jacques; James-Zorn, Christina; Guille, Matthew; Nicolas, Morgane; Lafond, Thomas; Boujard, Daniel; Audic, Yann; Guillet, Brigitte; Centre de Ressource Biologique Xenope team in France (Frontiers Media, 2019-04-25)
    Two species of the clawed frog family, Xenopus laevis and X. tropicalis, are widely used as tools to investigate both normal and disease-state biochemistry, genetics, cell biology, and developmental biology. To support ...
  • AP-1cFos/JunB/miR-200a regulate the pro-regenerative glial cell response during axolotl spinal cord regeneration 

    Sabin, Keith Z.; Jiang, Peng; Gearhart, Micah D.; Stewart, Ron; Echeverri, Karen (Nature Research, 2019-03-06)
    Salamanders have the remarkable ability to functionally regenerate after spinal cord transection. In response to injury, GFAP+ glial cells in the axolotl spinal cord proliferate and migrate to replace the missing neural ...
  • Understanding regeneration at different scales. 

    MacCord, Kate; Maienschein, Jane (eLife Sciences Publications, 2019-03-13)
    Regeneration occurs at many different levels in nature, from individual organisms (notably earthworms and hydra), through communities of microbes, to ecosystems such as forests. Researchers in the life sciences and the ...
  • Dynamic pigmentary and structural coloration within cephalopod chromatophore organs 

    Williams, Thomas L.; Senft, Stephen L.; Yeo, Jingjie; Martín-Martínez, Francisco J.; Kuzirian, Alan M.; Martin, Camille A.; DiBona, Christopher W.; Chen, Chun-Teh; Dinneen, Sean R.; Nguyen, Hieu T.; Gomes, Conor M.; Rosenthal, Joshua J. C.; MacManes, Matthew D.; Chu, Feixia; Buehler, Markus J.; Hanlon, Roger T.; Deravi, Leila F. (Nature Research, 2019-03-01)
    Chromatophore organs in cephalopod skin are known to produce ultra-fast changes in appearance for camouflage and communication. Light-scattering pigment granules within chromatocytes have been presumed to be the sole source ...
  • Elaborate pupils in skates may help camouflage the eye 

    Youn, Sean; Okinaka, Corey; Mäthger, Lydia M. (Company of Biologists, 2019-01-21)
    The skate Leucoraja erinacea is a bottom-dweller that buries into the substrate with its eyes protruding, revealing elaborately shaped pupils. It has been suggested that such pupil shapes may camouflage the eye, yet this ...
  • Regenerative capacity in the lamprey spinal cord is not altered after a repeated transection 

    Hanslik, Kendra; Allen, Scott R.; Harkenrider, Tessa L.; Fogerson, Stephanie M.; Guadarrama, Eduardo; Morgan, Jennifer R. (Public Library of Science, 2019-01-30)
    The resilience of regeneration in vertebrates is not very well understood. Yet understanding if tissues can regenerate after repeated insults, and identifying limitations, is important for elucidating the underlying ...
  • Ocean deoxygenation and zooplankton: Very small oxygen differences matter 

    Wishner, Karen F.; Seibel, Brad A.; Roman, Chris; Deutsch, Curtis; Outram, Dawn; Shaw, C. T.; Birk, Matthew A.; Mislan, K. A. S.; Adams, T. J.; Moore, D.; Riley, S. (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2018-12-19)
    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), large midwater regions of very low oxygen, are expected to expand as a result of climate change. While oxygen is known to be important in structuring midwater ecosystems, a precise and mechanistic ...
  • Light control of G protein signaling pathways by a novel photopigment 

    Osorno, Tomás; Arenas, Oscar; Ramírez-Suarez, Nelson J.; Echeverry, Fabio A.; Gomez, Maria del Pilar; Nasi, Enrico (Public Library of Science, 2018-10-01)
    Channelopsins and photo-regulated ion channels make it possible to use light to control electrical activity of cells. This powerful approach has lead to a veritable explosion of applications, though it is limited to changing ...
  • Mapping birefringence in three dimensions using polarized light field microscopy : the case of the juvenile clamshell 

    Tran, Mai Thi; Oldenbourg, Rudolf (2018-05)
    We report methods to generate three dimensional maps of birefringence, its position and orientation in juvenile shells of the Atlantic hard clamshell (Mercenaria mercenaria). For measuring the retardance and optic axis ...
  • Axonal ensheathment in the nervous system of lamprey : implications for the evolution of myelinating glia 

    Weil, Marie-Theres; Heibeck, Saskia; Töpperwien, Mareike; tom Dieck, Susanne; Ruhwedel, Torben; Salditt, Tim; Rodicio, María Celina; Morgan, Jennifer R.; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Möbius, Wiebke; Werner, Hauke B. (Society for Neuroscience, 2018-07-18)
    In the nervous system, myelination of axons enables rapid impulse conduction and is a specialized function of glial cells. Myelinating glia are the last cell type to emerge in the evolution of vertebrate nervous systems, ...
  • Molecular and functional identification of a novel photopigment in Pecten ciliary photoreceptors 

    Arenas, Oscar; Osorno, Tomás; Malagón, Gerardo; Pulido, Camila; Gomez, Maria del Pilar; Nasi, Enrico (Rockefeller University Press, 2018-01-26)
    The two basic animal photoreceptor types, ciliary and microvillar, use different light-transduction schemes: their photopigments couple to Gt versus Gq proteins, respectively, to either mobilize cyclic nucleotides or trigger ...
  • Elesclomol restores mitochondrial function in genetic models of copper deficiency 

    Soma, Shivatheja; Latimer, Andrew J.; Chun, Haarin; Vicary, Alison C.; Timbalia, Shrishiv A.; Boulet, Aren; Rahn, Jennifer J.; Chan, Sherine S. L.; Leary, Scot C.; Kim, Byung-Eun; Gitlin, Jonathan D.; Gohil, Vishal M. (National Academy of Sciences, 2018-07-23)
    Copper is an essential cofactor of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Inherited loss-of-function mutations in several genes encoding proteins required for copper delivery ...
  • GABA promotes survival and axonal regeneration in identifiable descending neurons after spinal cord injury in larval lampreys 

    Romaus-Sanjurjo, Daniel; Ledo-García, Rocío; Fernández-López, Blanca; Hanslik, Kendra; Morgan, Jennifer R.; Barreiro-Iglesias, Antón; Rodicio, María Celina (Nature Publishing Group, 2018-06-28)
    The poor regenerative capacity of descending neurons is one of the main causes of the lack of recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). Thus, it is of crucial importance to find ways to promote axonal regeneration. In ...
  • Effects of capture surface morphology on feeding success of scyphomedusae : a comparative study 

    Bezio, Nicholas; Costello, John H.; Perry, Elijah; Colin, Sean P. (Inter-Research, 2018-05-28)
    Predation by feeding-current foraging medusae can have detrimental effects on prey populations. Understanding the mechanics that control prey selection and ingestion rates with different types of prey enables us to better ...

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