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Coupled biogeochemical cycles : eutrophication and hypoxia in temperate estuaries and coastal marine ecosystems

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dc.contributor.author Howarth, Robert W.
dc.contributor.author Chan, Francis
dc.contributor.author Conley, Daniel J.
dc.contributor.author Garnier, Josette
dc.contributor.author Doney, Scott C.
dc.contributor.author Marino, Roxanne
dc.contributor.author Billen, Gilles
dc.date.accessioned 2011-07-14T15:26:43Z
dc.date.available 2011-07-14T15:26:43Z
dc.date.issued 2011-02
dc.identifier.citation Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 9 (2011): 18–26 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/1912/4684
dc.description Author Posting. © Ecological Society of America, 2011. This article is posted here by permission of Ecological Society of America for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 9 (2011): 18–26, doi:10.1890/100008. en_US
dc.description.abstract Nutrient fluxes to coastal areas have risen in recent decades, leading to widespread hypoxia and other ecological damage, particularly from nitrogen (N). Several factors make N more limiting in estuaries and coastal waters than in lakes: desorption (release) of phosphorus (P) bound to clay as salinity increases, lack of planktonic N fixation in most coastal ecosystems, and flux of relatively P-rich, N-poor waters from coastal oceans into estuaries. During eutrophication, biogeochemical feedbacks further increase the supply of N and P, but decrease availability of silica – conditions that can favor the formation and persistence of harmful algal blooms. Given sufficient N inputs, estuaries and coastal marine ecosystems can be driven to P limitation. This switch contributes to greater far-field N pollution; that is, the N moves further and contributes to eutrophication at greater distances. The physical oceanography (extent of stratification, residence time, and so forth) of coastal systems determines their sensitivity to hypoxia, and recent changes in physics have made some ecosystems more sensitive to hypoxia. Coastal hypoxia contributes to ocean acidification, which harms calcifying organisms such as mollusks and some crustaceans. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship Funding was supplied in part by NOAA through the Coastal Hypoxia Research Program, by the NSF through the Biocomplexity Coupled Biogeochemical Cycles competition, and by DR Atkinson through an endowment given to Cornell University. en_US
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher Ecological Society of America en_US
dc.relation.uri http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/100008
dc.title Coupled biogeochemical cycles : eutrophication and hypoxia in temperate estuaries and coastal marine ecosystems en_US
dc.type Article en_US
dc.identifier.doi 10.1890/100008


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