Electrical lithosphere beneath the Kaapvaal craton, southern Africa
Evans, Rob L.
Jones, Alan G.
Muller, Mark R.
Hamilton, Mark P.
Fourie, C. J. S.
Webb, Susan J.
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A regional-scale magnetotelluric (MT) experiment across the southern African Kaapvaal craton and surrounding terranes, called the Southern African Magnetotelluric Experiment (SAMTEX), has revealed complex structure in the lithospheric mantle. Large variations in maximum resistivity at depths to 200–250 km relate directly to age and tectonic provenance of surface structures. Within the central portions of the Kaapvaal craton are regions of resistive lithosphere about 230 km thick, in agreement with estimates from xenolith thermobarometry and seismic surface wave tomography, but thinner than inferred from seismic body wave tomography. The MT data are unable to discriminate between a completely dry or slightly “damp” (a few hundred parts per million of water) structure within the transitional region at the base of the lithosphere. However, the structure of the uppermost ∼150 km of lithosphere is consistent with enhanced, but still low, conductivities reported for hydrous olivine and orthopyroxene at levels of water reported for Kaapvaal xenoliths. The electrical lithosphere around the Kimberley and Premier diamond mines is thinner than the maximum craton thickness found between Kimberley and Johannesburg/Pretoria. The mantle beneath the Bushveld Complex is highly conducting at depths around 60 km. Possible explanations for these high conductivities include graphite or sulphide and/or iron metals associated with the Bushveld magmatic event. We suggest that one of these conductive phases (most likely melt-related sulphides) could electrically connect iron-rich garnets in a garnet-rich eclogitic composition associated with a relict subduction slab.
Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2011. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research 116 (2011): B04105, doi:10.1029/2010JB007883.
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Jones, Alan G.; Evans, Rob L.; Muller, Mark R.; Hamilton, Mark P.; Miensopust, Marion P.; Garcia, Xavier; Cole, Patrick; Ngwisanyi, Tiyapo; Hutchins, David; Fourie, C. J. S.; Jelsma, Hielke; Aravanis, Theo; Pettit, Wayne; Webb, Susan J.; Webb, Jan; Collins, Louise; Hogg, Colin; Horan, Clare; Spratt, Jessica; Wallace, Gerry; Chave, Alan D.; Cole, Janine; Stettler, Raimund; Tshoso, G.; Mountford, Andy; Cunion, Ed; Khoza, T. David; Share, Pieter-Ewald; SAMTEX Team (2009-06-05)Southern Africa, particularly the Kaapvaal Craton, is one of the world’s best natural laboratories for studying the lithospheric mantle given the wealth of xenolith and seismic data that exist for it. The Southern African ...
Water in cratonic lithosphere : calibrating laboratory-determined models of electrical conductivity of mantle minerals using geophysical and petrological observations Jones, Alan G.; Fullea, Javier; Evans, Rob L.; Muller, Mark R. (American Geophysical Union, 2012-06-14)Measurements of electrical conductivity of “slightly damp” mantle minerals from different laboratories are inconsistent, requiring geophysicists to make choices between them when interpreting their electrical observations. ...
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