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dc.contributor.authorGodard-Codding, Celine A. J.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorClark, Rebecca  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorFossi, Maria Cristina  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorMarsili, Letizia  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorMaltese, Silvia  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorWest, Adam G.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorValenzuela, Luciano  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorRowntree, Victoria  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorPolyak, Ildiko  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorCannon, John C.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorPinkerton, Kim  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorRubio-Cisneros, Nadia  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorMesnick, Sarah L.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorCox, Stephen B.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorKerr, Iain  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorPayne, Roger  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorStegeman, John J.  Concept link
dc.date.accessioned2011-03-25T15:22:09Z
dc.date.available2011-03-25T15:22:09Z
dc.date.issued2010-12-06
dc.identifier.citationEnvironmental Health Perspectives 119 (2011): 337-343en_US
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/1912/4419
dc.descriptionThis paper is not subject to U.S. copyright. The definitive version was published in Environmental Health Perspectives 119 (2011): 337-343, doi:10.1289/ehp.0901809.en_US
dc.description.abstractBackground: Ocean pollution affects marine organisms and ecosystems as well as humans. The International Oceanographic Commission recommends ocean health monitoring programs to investigate the presence of marine contaminants and the health of threatened species and the use of multiple and early-warning biomarker approaches. Objective: We explored the hypothesis that biomarker and contaminant analyses in skin biopsies of the threatened sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) could reveal geographical trends in exposure on an oceanwide scale. Methods: We analyzed cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) expression (by immunohistochemistry), stable nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios (as general indicators of trophic position and latitude, respectively), and contaminant burdens in skin biopsies to explore regional trends in the Pacific Ocean. Results: Biomarker analyses revealed significant regional differences within the Pacific Ocean. CYP1A1 expression was highest in whales from the Galapagos, a United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization World Heritage marine reserve, and was lowest in the sampling sites farthest away from continents. We examined the possible influence of the whales’ sex, diet, or range and other parameters on regional variation in CYP1A1 expression, but data were inconclusive. In general, CYP1A1 expression was not significantly correlated with contaminant burdens in blubber. However, small sample sizes precluded detailed chemical analyses, and power to detect significant associations was limited. Conclusions: Our large-scale monitoring study was successful at identifying regional differences in CYP1A1 expression, providing a baseline for this known biomarker of exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists. However, we could not identify factors that explained this variation. Future oceanwide CYP1A1 expression profiles in cetacean skin biopsies are warranted and could reveal whether globally distributed chemicals occur at biochemically relevant concentrations on a global basis, which may provide a measure of ocean integrity.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipFunding was provided by National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences grant P42-ES-0469, Superfund Basic Research Program grant P42ES007381, NOAA Sea Grant NA86RG0075 R/B-162, and the Ocean Alliance.en_US
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherNational Institute of Environmental Health Sciencesen_US
dc.relation.urihttps://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.0901809
dc.subjectBiomarkersen_US
dc.subjectCYP1A1en_US
dc.subjectCytochrome P450en_US
dc.subjectMarine ecosystemen_US
dc.subjectMarine mammalen_US
dc.subjectPAHen_US
dc.subjectPCBen_US
dc.subjectPHAHen_US
dc.subjectSperm whaleen_US
dc.subjectStable isotopeen_US
dc.titlePacific Ocean–wide profile of CYP1A1 expression, stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios, and organic contaminant burden in sperm whale skin biopsiesen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1289/ehp.0901809


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