Pacific Ocean–wide profile of CYP1A1 expression, stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios, and organic contaminant burden in sperm whale skin biopsies
Godard-Codding, Celine A. J.
Fossi, Maria Cristina
West, Adam G.
Cannon, John C.
Mesnick, Sarah L.
Cox, Stephen B.
Stegeman, John J.
MetadataShow full item record
KeywordBiomarkers; CYP1A1; Cytochrome P450; Marine ecosystem; Marine mammal; PAH; PCB; PHAH; Sperm whale; Stable isotope
Background: Ocean pollution affects marine organisms and ecosystems as well as humans. The International Oceanographic Commission recommends ocean health monitoring programs to investigate the presence of marine contaminants and the health of threatened species and the use of multiple and early-warning biomarker approaches. Objective: We explored the hypothesis that biomarker and contaminant analyses in skin biopsies of the threatened sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) could reveal geographical trends in exposure on an oceanwide scale. Methods: We analyzed cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) expression (by immunohistochemistry), stable nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios (as general indicators of trophic position and latitude, respectively), and contaminant burdens in skin biopsies to explore regional trends in the Pacific Ocean. Results: Biomarker analyses revealed significant regional differences within the Pacific Ocean. CYP1A1 expression was highest in whales from the Galapagos, a United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization World Heritage marine reserve, and was lowest in the sampling sites farthest away from continents. We examined the possible influence of the whales’ sex, diet, or range and other parameters on regional variation in CYP1A1 expression, but data were inconclusive. In general, CYP1A1 expression was not significantly correlated with contaminant burdens in blubber. However, small sample sizes precluded detailed chemical analyses, and power to detect significant associations was limited. Conclusions: Our large-scale monitoring study was successful at identifying regional differences in CYP1A1 expression, providing a baseline for this known biomarker of exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists. However, we could not identify factors that explained this variation. Future oceanwide CYP1A1 expression profiles in cetacean skin biopsies are warranted and could reveal whether globally distributed chemicals occur at biochemically relevant concentrations on a global basis, which may provide a measure of ocean integrity.
This paper is not subject to U.S. copyright. The definitive version was published in Environmental Health Perspectives 119 (2011): 337-343, doi:10.1289/ehp.0901809.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Libes, Susan M. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1983-01)Isotope studies of nitrogen and carbon were undertaken to investigate the fate of particulate organic matter (POM) during its residence in the water column and after deposition on the seafloor. The processes focused on ...
Transfer of organic carbon through marine water columns to sediments – insights from stable and radiocarbon isotopes of lipid biomarkers Wakeham, Stuart G.; McNichol, Ann P. (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2014-12-10)Compound-specific 13C and 14C compositions of diverse lipid biomarkers (fatty acids, alkenones, hydrocarbons, sterols and fatty alcohols) were measured in sinking particulate matter collected in sediment traps and from ...
Thorrold, Simon R.; Jones, Geoffrey P.; Planes, Serge; Hare, Jonathan A. (NRC Research Press, 2006-04-13)We describe a new technique for transgenerational marking of embryonic otoliths that promises significant advancements in the study of larval dispersal and population connectivity in marine fishes. The approach is based ...