An assessment of Arctic Ocean freshwater content changes from the 1990s to the 2006-2008 period
Toole, John M.
Krishfield, Richard A.
MetadataShow full item record
Unprecedented summer-season sampling of the Arctic Ocean during the period 2006−2008 makes possible a quasi-synoptic estimate of liquid freshwater (LFW) inventories in the Arctic Ocean basins. In comparison to observations from 1992−1999, LFW content relative to a salinity of 35 in the layer from the surface to the 34 isohaline increased by 8400 ± 2000 km3 in the Arctic Ocean (water depth greater than 500m). This is close to the annual export of freshwater (liquid and solid) from the Arctic Ocean reported in the literature. Observations and a model simulation show regional variations in LFW were both due to changes in the depth of the lower halocline, often forced by regional wind-induced Ekman pumping, and a mean freshening of the water column above this depth, associated with an increased net sea ice melt and advection of increased amounts of river water from the Siberian shelves. Over the whole Arctic Ocean, changes in the observed mean salinity above the 34 isohaline dominated estimated changes in LFW content; the contribution to LFW change by bounding isohaline depth changes was less than a quarter of the salinity contribution, and non-linear effects due to both factors were negligible.
Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2010. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers 58 (2011): 173-185, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2010.12.002.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Sutherland, David A.; Pickart, Robert S.; Jones, E. Peter; Azetsu-Scott, Kumiko; Eert, A. Jane; Olafsson, Jon (American Geophysical Union, 2009-05-27)The freshwater composition of waters on the southeast Greenland shelf and slope are described using a set of high-resolution transects occupied in summer 2004, which included hydrographic, velocity, nutrient, and chemical ...
McPhee, M. G.; Proshutinsky, Andrey; Morison, James H.; Steele, Michael; Alkire, M. B. (American Geophysical Union, 2009-05-21)The dramatic reduction in minimum Arctic sea ice extent in recent years has been accompanied by surprising changes in the thermohaline structure of the Arctic Ocean, with potentially important impact on convection in the ...
Rabe, Benjamin; Karcher, Michael; Kauker, Frank; Schauer, Ursula; Toole, John M.; Krishfield, Richard A.; Pisarev, Sergey; Kikuchi, Takashi; Su, J. (John Wiley & Sons, 2014-02-12)Freshwater in the Arctic Ocean plays an important role in the regional ocean circulation, sea ice, and global climate. From salinity observed by a variety of platforms, we are able, for the first time, to estimate a ...