The effect of breaking waves on a coupled model of wind and ocean surface waves. Part II : growing seas
MetadataShow full item record
This is the second part of a two-part investigation of a coupled wind and wave model that includes the enhanced form drag of breaking waves. The model is based on the wave energy balance and the conservation of air-side momentum and energy. In Part I, coupled nonlinear advance–delay differential equations were derived, which govern the wave height spectrum, the distribution of breaking waves, and vertical air side profiles of the turbulent stress and wind speed. Numeric solutions were determined for mature seas. Here, numeric solutions for a wide range of wind and wave conditions are obtained, including young, strongly forced wind waves. Furthermore, the “spatial sheltering effect” is introduced so that smaller waves in airflow separation regions of breaking longer waves cannot be forced by the wind. The solutions strongly depend on the wave height curvature spectrum at high wavenumbers (the “threshold saturation level”). As the threshold saturation level is reduced, the effect of breaking waves becomes stronger. For young strongly forced waves (laboratory conditions), breaking waves close to the spectral peak dominate the wind input and previous solutions of a model with only input to breaking waves are recovered. Model results of the normalized roughness length are generally consistent with previous laboratory and field measurements. For field conditions, the wind stress depends sensitively on the wave height spectrum. The spatial sheltering may modify the number of breaking shorter waves, in particular, for younger seas.
Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2008. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 38 (2008): 2164–2184, doi:10.1175/2008JPO3962.1.
Suggested CitationJournal of Physical Oceanography 38 (2008: 2164–2184
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
The effect of breaking waves on a coupled model of wind and ocean surface waves. Part I : mature seas Kukulka, Tobias; Hara, Tetsu (American Meteorological Society, 2008-10)This is the first of a two-part investigation of a coupled wind and wave model that includes the enhanced form drag of breaking waves. In Part I here the model is developed and applied to mature seas. Part II explores the ...
Measurements and models of fine-structure, internal gravity waves and wave breaking in the deep ocean Eriksen, Charles C. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1976-09)Measurements of horizontal and vertical current by propeller cluster current meters and temperature by thermistors mounted on a rigid array 8 m high and 20 m long moored in the oceanic main thermocline near Bermuda are ...
Feddersen, Falk; Trowbridge, John H. (American Meteorological Society, 2005-11)The effect of breaking-wave-generated turbulence on the mean circulation, turbulence, and bottom stress in the surf zone is poorly understood. A one-dimensional vertical coupled turbulence (k–ε) and mean-flow model is ...