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dc.contributor.authorMa, Leung-Hang  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorGilland, Edwin  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorBass, Andrew H.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorBaker, Robert  Concept link
dc.identifier.citationNature Communications 1 (2010): 49en_US
dc.description© Macmillan Publishers Limited, 2010. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 Unported License. The definitive version was published in Nature Communications 1 (2010): 49, doi:10.1038/ncomms1045.en_US
dc.description.abstractMotor innervation to the tetrapod forelimb and fish pectoral fin is assumed to share a conserved spinal cord origin, despite major structural and functional innovations of the appendage during the vertebrate water-to-land transition. In this paper, we present anatomical and embryological evidence showing that pectoral motoneurons also originate in the hindbrain among ray-finned fish. New and previous data for lobe-finned fish, a group that includes tetrapods, and more basal cartilaginous fish showed pectoral innervation that was consistent with a hindbrain-spinal origin of motoneurons. Together, these findings support a hindbrain–spinal phenotype as the ancestral vertebrate condition that originated as a postural adaptation for pectoral control of head orientation. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that Hox gene modules were shared in fish and tetrapod pectoral systems. We propose that evolutionary shifts in Hox gene expression along the body axis provided a transcriptional mechanism allowing eventual decoupling of pectoral motoneurons from the hindbrain much like their target appendage gained independence from the head.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipTh is work was supported by the National Institutes of Health and National Science Foundation.en_US
dc.publisherNature Publishing Groupen_US
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported*
dc.titleAncestry of motor innervation to pectoral fin and forelimben_US

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