Now showing items 727-746 of 5413

    • Climate–carbon cycle feedback analysis : results from the C4MIP model intercomparison 

      Friedlingstein, Pierre; Cox, P.; Betts, R.; Bopp, Laurent; von Bloh, W.; Brovkin, V.; Cadule, P.; Doney, Scott C.; Eby, Michael; Fung, Inez Y.; Bala, G.; John, Jasmin G.; Jones, C. D.; Joos, Fortunat; Kato, T.; Kawamiya, M.; Knorr, W.; Lindsay, Keith; Matthews, H. D.; Raddatz, T.; Rayner, Peter; Reick, C.; Roeckner, E.; Schnitzler, K.-G.; Schnur, R.; Strassmann, K.; Weaver, Andrew J.; Yoshikawa, C.; Zeng, Ning (American Meteorological Society, 2006-07-15)
      Eleven coupled climate–carbon cycle models used a common protocol to study the coupling between climate change and the carbon cycle. The models were forced by historical emissions and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate ...
    • Climatically driven emissions of hydrocarbons from marine sediments during deglaciation 

      Hill, T. M.; Kennett, J. P.; Valentine, David L.; Yang, Z.; Reddy, Christopher M.; Nelson, Robert K.; Behl, R. J.; Robert, C.; Beaufort, L. (2006-07-31)
      Marine hydrocarbon seepage emits oil and gas, including methane (~30 Tg CH4/year), to the ocean and atmosphere. Sediments from the California margin contain preserved tar, primarily formed via hydrocarbon weathering at ...
    • Climatological mean circulation at the New England shelf break 

      Zhang, Weifeng G.; Gawarkiewicz, Glen G.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J. (American Meteorological Society, 2011-10)
      A two-dimensional cross-shelf model of the New England continental shelf and slope is used to investigate the mean cross-shelf and vertical circulation at the shelf break and their seasonal variation. The model temperature ...
    • Climatology of surface meteorology, surface fluxes, cloud fraction, and radiative forcing over the southeast Pacific from buoy observations 

      Ghate, Virendra P.; Albrecht, Bruce A.; Fairall, Christopher W.; Weller, Robert A. (American Meteorological Society, 2009-10-15)
      A 5-yr climatology of the meteorology, including boundary layer cloudiness, for the southeast Pacific region is presented using observations from a buoy located at 20°S, 85°W. The sea surface temperature and surface air ...
    • A climatology of the Middle Atlantic Bight shelfbreak front 

      Linder, Christopher A. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1996-09)
      Description of the shelfbreak front in the Middle Atlantic Bight is hampered by the extreme variability of the front. In order to gain more insight into the mean frontal structure and associated baroclinic jet, historical ...
    • CLIMODE bobber data report : July 2005 - May 2009 

      Fratantoni, David M.; McKee, Theresa K.; Hodges, Benjamin A.; Furey, Heather H.; Lund, John M. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2010-03)
      This report summarizes direct observations of Eighteen Degree Water (EDW) subduction and dispersal within the subtropical gyre of the North Atlantic Ocean. Forty acoustically-tracked bobbing, profiling floats (“bobbers”) ...
    • The CLIMODE field campaign : observing the cycle of convection and restratification over the Gulf Stream 

      Marshall, John C.; Ferrari, Raffaele; Forget, G.; Maze, G.; Andersson, A.; Bates, Nicholas R.; Dewar, William K.; Doney, Scott C.; Fratantoni, David M.; Joyce, Terrence M.; Straneo, Fiamma; Toole, John M.; Weller, Robert A.; Edson, James B.; Gregg, M. C.; Kelly, Kathryn A.; Lozier, M. Susan; Palter, Jaime B.; Lumpkin, Rick; Samelson, Roger M.; Skyllingstad, Eric D.; Silverthorne, Katherine E.; Talley, Lynne D.; Thomas, Leif N. (American Meteorological Society, 2009-09)
      A major oceanographic field experiment is described, which is designed to observe, quantify, and understand the creation and dispersal of weakly stratified fluid known as “mode water” in the region of the Gulf Stream. ...
    • CLIMODE Subsurface Mooring Report : November 2005 - November 2007 

      Lund, John M.; Davis, Xujing Jia; Ramsey, Andree L.; Straneo, Fiamma; Torres, Daniel J.; Palter, Jaime B.; Gary, Stefan F.; Fratantoni, David M. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2013-03)
      Two years of temperature, salinity, current, and nutrient data were collected on four subsurface moorings as part of the 2 year field component of the CLIMODE experiment. The moorings were located in North Atlantic’s ...
    • CLIVAR Mode Water Dynamics Experiment (CLIMODE) fall 2005, R/V Oceanus voyage 419, November 9, 2005–November 27, 2005 

      Hutto, Lara; Weller, Robert A.; Fratantoni, David M.; Lord, Jeffrey; Kemp, John N.; Lund, John M.; Brambilla, Elena; Bigorre, Sebastien P. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2006-02)
      CLIMODE (CLIVAR Mode Water Dynamic Experiment) is a program designed to understand and quantify the processes responsible for the formation and dissipation of North Atlantic subtropical mode water, also called Eighteen ...
    • CLIVAR Mode Water Dynamics Experiment (CLIMODE) fall 2006 R/V Oceanus voyage 434 November 16, 2006–December 3, 2006 

      Bigorre, Sebastien P.; Weller, Robert A.; Lord, Jeffrey; Lund, John M.; Palter, Jaime B.; Tupper, George H. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2007-12)
      CLIMODE (CLIVAR Mode Water Dynamic Experiment) is a research program designed to understand and quantify the processes responsible for the formation and dissipation of North Atlantic subtropical mode water, also called ...
    • Cloning a new cytochrome P450 isoform (CYP356A1) from oyster Crassostrea gigas 

      de Toledo-Silva, Guilherme; Siebert, Marília N.; Medeiros, Igor D.; Sincero, Thaís C. M.; Moraes, Milton O.; Goldstone, Jared V.; Bainy, Afonso C. D. (2008-02)
      We have cloned the full-length cDNA of the first member of a new cytochrome P450 (CYP) family from the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. This new CYP gene was obtained based on an initial 331 bp fragment previously ...
    • Closely related phytoplankton species produce similar suites of dissolved organic matter 

      Becker, Jamie W.; Berube, Paul M.; Follett, Christopher L.; Waterbury, John B.; Chisholm, Sallie W.; DeLong, Edward F.; Repeta, Daniel J. (Frontiers Media, 2014-03-28)
      Production of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by marine phytoplankton supplies the majority of organic substrate consumed by heterotrophic bacterioplankton in the sea. This production and subsequent consumption converts a ...
    • Cloud condensation nucleus activity comparison of dry- and wet-generated mineral dust aerosol : the significance of soluble material 

      Garimella, S.; Huang, Y.-W.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.; Cziczo, D. J. (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2014-06-18)
      This study examines the interaction of clay mineral particles and water vapor for determining the conditions required for cloud droplet formation. Droplet formation conditions are investigated for two common clay minerals, ...
    • Cloudiness and precipitation in relation to frontal lifting and horizontal convergence 

      Austin, James Murdoch (Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1943-08)
      The physical processes which result in the formation of clouds and the production of precipitation have been described by numerous meteorologists. The genetical classification has been summarized by Petterssen as ...
    • Clumped isotope composition of cold-water corals : a role for vital effects? 

      Spooner, Peter T.; Guo, Weifu; Robinson, Laura F.; Thiagarajan, Nivedita; Hendry, Katharine R.; Rosenheim, Brad E.; Leng, Melanie J. (Elsevier, 2016-02-02)
      The carbonate clumped isotope thermometer is a promising tool for determining past ocean temperatures. It is based on the temperature dependence of rare isotopes ‘clumping’ into the same carbonate ion group in the carbonate ...
    • Clumped isotope composition of cold-water corals : a role for vital effects? 

      Spooner, Peter T.; Guo, Weifu; Robinson, Laura F.; Thiagarajan, Nivedita; Hendry, Katharine R.; Rosenheim, Brad E.; Leng, Melanie J. (Elsevier, 2016-02-02)
      The carbonate clumped isotope thermometer is a promising tool for determining past ocean temperatures. It is based on the temperature dependence of rare isotopes ‘clumping’ into the same carbonate ion group in the carbonate ...
    • CMIP5 model intercomparison of freshwater budget and circulation in the North Atlantic 

      Deshayes, Julie; Curry, Ruth G.; Msadek, Rym (American Meteorological Society, 2014-05-01)
      The subpolar North Atlantic is a center of variability of ocean properties, wind stress curl, and air–sea exchanges. Observations and hindcast simulations suggest that from the early 1970s to the mid-1990s the subpolar ...
    • The co-evolution of Black Sea level and composition through the last deglaciation and its paleoclimatic significance 

      Major, Candace O.; Goldstein, Steven L.; Ryan, William B. F.; Lericolais, Gilles; Piotrowski, Alexander M.; Hajdas, Irka (2006-01-28)
      The strontium and oxygen isotopic compositions of carbonate shells are a measure of the water delivered to the Black Sea lake since the last glacial maximum. Commencing at ~18 ka BP cal with the arrival of substantial ...
    • CO2 deposition over the multi-year ice of the western Weddell Sea 

      Zemmelink, Hendrik J.; Delille, B.; Tison, J. L.; Hintsa, Eric J.; Houghton, Leah; Dacey, John W. H. (American Geophysical Union, 2006-07-13)
      Field measurements by eddy correlation (EC) indicate an average uptake of 0.6 g CO2 m−2 d−1 by the ice-covered western Weddell Sea in December 2004. At the same time, snow that covers ice floes of the western Weddell Sea ...
    • CO2-rich komatiitic melt inclusions in Cr-spinels within beach sand from Gorgona Island, Colombia 

      Shimizu, Kenji; Shimizu, Nobumichi; Komiya, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Maruyama, Shigenori; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki (2009-07)
      The volatile content of komatiite is a key to constrain the thermal and chemical evolution of the deep Earth. We report the volatile contents with major and trace element compositions of ~ 80 melt inclusions in chromian ...