Now showing items 3523-3542 of 5578

    • Ocean chlorofluorocarbon and heat uptake during the twentieth century in the CCSM3 

      Gent, Peter R.; Bryan, Frank O.; Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Lindsay, Keith; Tsumune, Daisuke; Hecht, Matthew W.; Doney, Scott C. (American Meteorological Society, 2006-06-01)
      An ensemble of nine simulations for the climate of the twentieth century has been run using the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3). Three of these runs also simulate the uptake of chlorofluorocarbon-11 (CFC-11) ...
    • Ocean circulation and biogeochemistry moderate interannual and decadal surface water pH changes in the Sargasso Sea 

      Goodkin, Nathalie F.; Wang, Bo-Shian; You, Chen-Feng; Hughen, Konrad A.; Grumet-Prouty, Nancy; Bates, Nicholas R.; Doney, Scott C. (John Wiley & Sons, 2015-06-25)
      The oceans absorb anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere, lowering surface ocean pH, a concern for calcifying marine organisms. The impact of ocean acidification is challenging to predict as each species appears to respond ...
    • Ocean circulation and dynamics on the west Antarctic Peninsula continental shelf 

      Moffat Varas, Carlos F. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2007-09)
      Observations of current velocity, temperature, salinity and pressure from a 2-year moored array deployment and four hydrographic cruises conducted by the United States Southern Ocean GLOBEC program on the western Antarctic ...
    • Ocean climate variability in the eastern North Atlantic during interglacial marine isotope stage 11 : a partial analogue to the Holocene? 

      de Abreu, Lucia; Abrantes, Fatima G.; Shackleton, Nicholas J.; Tzedakis, Polychronis C.; McManus, Jerry F.; Oppo, Delia W.; Hall, Michael A. (American Geophysical Union, 2005-08-30)
      Similar orbital geometry and greenhouse gas concentrations during marine isotope stage 11 (MIS 11) and the Holocene make stage 11 perhaps the best geological analogue period for the natural development of the present ...
    • An ocean coupling potential intensity index for tropical cyclones 

      Lin, I.-I.; Black, Peter G.; Price, James F.; Yang, C.-Y.; Chen, Shuyi S.; Lien, C.-C.; Harr, Patrick; Chi, N.-H.; Wu, C.-C.; D'Asaro, Eric A. (John Wiley & Sons, 2013-05-15)
      Timely and accurate forecasts of tropical cyclones (TCs, i.e., hurricanes and typhoons) are of great importance for risk mitigation. Although in the past two decades there has been steady improvement in track prediction, ...
    • Ocean eddy dynamics in a coupled ocean-atmosphere model 

      Berloff, Pavel S.; Dewar, William K.; Kravtsov, Sergey K.; McWilliams, James C. (American Meteorological Society, 2007-05)
      The role of mesoscale oceanic eddies is analyzed in a quasigeostrophic coupled ocean–atmosphere model operating at a large Reynolds number. The model dynamics are characterized by decadal variability that involves nonlinear ...
    • Ocean preconditioning of Cyclone Nargis in the Bay of Bengal : interaction between Rossby waves, surface fresh waters, and sea surface temperatures 

      Yu, Lisan; McPhaden, Michael J. (American Meteorological Society, 2011-09)
      An in-depth data analysis was conducted to understand the occurrence of a strong sea surface temperature (SST) front in the central Bay of Bengal before the formation of Cyclone Nargis in April 2008. Nargis changed its ...
    • Ocean response to a hurricane, part II : data tabulations and numerical modeling 

      Price, James F.; Sanford, Thomas B.; Forristall, George Z. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1991-01)
      Field observations of the ocean's forced stage response to three hurricanes, Norbert (1984), Josephine (1984) and Gloria (1985), are analyzed and presented in a storm-centered coordinate system. All three hurricanes had ...
    • Ocean rises are products of variable mantle composition, temperature and focused melting 

      Dick, Henry J. B.; Zhou, Huaiyang (2014-12)
      Ocean ridges, where Earth’s tectonic plates are pulled apart, vary from more than 5- km depth in the Arctic to 750 m above sea level in Iceland. This huge relief is generally attributed to mantle plumes underlying mantle ...
    • Ocean Seismic Network Pilot Experiment 

      Stephen, Ralph A.; Spiess, Fred N.; Collins, John A.; Hildebrand, John A.; Orcutt, John A.; Peal, Kenneth R.; Vernon, Frank L.; Wooding, Frank B. (2003-10-31)
      The primary goal of the Ocean Seismic Network Pilot Experiment (OSNPE) was to learn how to make high quality broadband seismic measurements on the ocean bottom in preparation for a permanent ocean seismic network. The ...
    • Ocean sound channel ray path perturbations from internal-wave shear and strain 

      Duda, Timothy F. (Acoustical Society of America, 2005-11)
      The relative importance of internal-wave strain and internal-wave shear on perturbation of acoustic ray trajectories in the ocean is analyzed. Previous estimates based on the Garrett-Munk internal-wave spectral model are ...
    • Ocean turbulence, III : new GISS vertical mixing scheme 

      Canuto, V. M.; Howard, A. M.; Cheng, Y.; Muller, C. J.; Leboissetier, A.; Jayne, Steven R. (2010-04)
      We have found a new way to express the solutions of the RSM (Reynolds Stress Model) equations that allows us to present the turbulent diffusivities for heat, salt and momentum in a way that is considerably simpler and ...
    • Ocean urea fertilization for carbon credits poses high ecological risks 

      Glibert, Patricia M.; Azanza, Rhodora; Burford, Michele; Furuya, Ken; Abal, Eva; Al-Azri, Adnan; Al-Yamani, Faiza; Andersen, Per; Anderson, Donald M.; Beardall, John; Berg, Gry M.; Brand, Larry E.; Bronk, Deborah; Brookes, Justin; Burkholder, JoAnn M.; Cembella, Allan D.; Cochlan, William P.; Collier, Jackie L.; Collos, Yves; Diaz, Robert; Doblin, Martina; Drennen, Thomas; Dyhrman, Sonya T.; Fukuyo, Yasuwo; Furnas, Miles; Galloway, James; Graneli, Edna; Ha, Dao Viet; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf M.; Harrison, John A.; Harrison, Paul J.; Heil, Cynthia A.; Heimann, Kirsten; Howarth, Robert W.; Jauzein, Cecile; Kana, Austin A.; Kana, Todd M.; Kim, Hakgyoon; Kudela, Raphael M.; Legrand, Catherine; Mallin, Michael; Mulholland, Margaret; Murray, Shauna A.; O’Neil, Judith; Pitcher, Grant C.; Qi, Yuzao; Rabalais, Nancy; Raine, Robin; Seitzinger, Sybil P.; Salomon, Paulo S.; Solomon, Caroline; Stoecker, Diane K.; Usup, Gires; Wilson, Joanne; Yin, Kedong; Zhou, Mingjiang; Zhu, Mingyuan (2008)
      The proposed plan for enrichment of the Sulu Sea, Philippines, a region of rich marine biodiversity, with thousands of tonnes of urea in order to stimulate algal blooms and sequester carbon is flawed for multiple reasons. ...
    • Ocean variability contributing to basal melt rate near the ice front of Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica 

      Arzeno, Isabella B.; Beardsley, Robert C.; Limeburner, Richard; Owens, W. Brechner; Padman, Laurie; Springer, Scott R.; Stewart, Craig L.; Williams, Michael J. M. (John Wiley & Sons, 2014-07-09)
      Basal melting of ice shelves is an important, but poorly understood, cause of Antarctic ice sheet mass loss and freshwater production. We use data from two moorings deployed through Ross Ice Shelf, ∼6 and ∼16 km south of ...
    • Oceanic and terrestrial sources of continental precipitation 

      Gimeno, Luis; Stohl, Andreas; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Dominguez, Francina; Yoshimura, Kei; Yu, Lisan; Drumond, Anita; Duran-Quesada, Ana Maria; Nieto, Raquel (American Geophysical Union, 2012-11-08)
      The most important sources of atmospheric moisture at the global scale are herein identified, both oceanic and terrestrial, and a characterization is made of how continental regions are influenced by water from different ...
    • An oceanic current against the wind : how does Taiwan island steer warm water into the East China Sea? 

      Yang, Jiayan (American Meteorological Society, 2007-10)
      Along the Taiwan Strait (<100 m in depth) a northeastward flow persists in all seasons despite the annually averaged wind stress that is strongly southwestward. The forcing mechanism of this countercurrent is examined by ...
    • Oceanic evidence of climate change in southern Australia over the last three centuries 

      Thresher, Ronald E.; Rintoul, Stephen R.; Koslow, J. Anthony; Weidman, Christopher R.; Adkins, Jess F.; Proctor, Craig (American Geophysical Union, 2004-04-13)
      Chemical analysis of deepwater octocorals collected at 1000 m depth off southern Australia indicates long-term cooling, beginning in the mid-18th century. This cooling appears to reflect shoaling of isotherms along the ...
    • Oceanic fluxes of mass, heat, and freshwater : a global estimate and perspective 

      Macdonald, Alison M. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1995-08)
      Data from fifteen globally distributed, modern, high resolution, hydrographic oceanic transects are combined in an inverse calculation using large scale box models. The models provide estimates of the global meridional ...
    • Oceanic heterotrophic bacterial nutrition by semilabile DOM as revealed by data assimilative modeling 

      Luo, Ya-Wei; Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M.; Doney, Scott C.; Church, Matthew J.; Ducklow, Hugh W. (Inter-Research, 2010-08-03)
      Previous studies have focused on the role of labile dissolved organic matter (DOM) (defined as turnover time of ~1 d) in supporting heterotrophic bacterial production, but have mostly neglected semilabile DOM (defined as ...
    • Oceanic internal-wave field : theory of scale-invariant spectra 

      Lvov, Yuri V.; Polzin, Kurt L.; Tabak, Esteban G.; Yokoyama, Naoto (American Meteorological Society, 2010-12)
      Steady scale-invariant solutions of a kinetic equation describing the statistics of oceanic internal gravity waves based on wave turbulence theory are investigated. It is shown in the nonrotating scale-invariant limit that ...