Now showing items 2171-2190 of 6296

    • Frequency-dependent two-sex models : a new approach to sex ratio evolution with multiple maternal conditions 

      Shyu, Esther; Caswell, Hal (John Wiley & Sons, 2016-09-07)
      Mothers that experience different individual or environmental conditions may produce different proportions of male to female offspring. The Trivers-Willard hypothesis, for instance, suggests that mothers with different ...
    • Frequently asked questions about ocean acidification 

      Cooley, Sarah R.; Mathis, Jeremy T.; Yates, Kimberly K.; Turley, Carol (U.S. Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry Program and the UK Ocean Acidification Research Programme., 2012-09-15)
      Over the past five years, no other issue has received more attention in the marine science community than ocean acidification. Ocean acidification is a multi-disciplinary research area that encompasses topics such as ...
    • Freshwater and its role in the Arctic Marine System : sources, disposition, storage, export, and physical and biogeochemical consequences in the Arctic and global oceans 

      Carmack, Edward C.; Yamamoto-Kawai, Michiyo; Haine, Thomas W. N.; Bacon, Sheldon; Bluhm, Bodil A.; Lique, Camille; Melling, Humfrey; Polyakov, Igor V.; Straneo, Fiamma; Timmermans, Mary-Louise; Williams, William J. (John Wiley & Sons, 2016-03-30)
      The Arctic Ocean is a fundamental node in the global hydrological cycle and the ocean's thermohaline circulation. We here assess the system's key functions and processes: (1) the delivery of fresh and low-salinity waters ...
    • Freshwater composition of the waters off southeast Greenland and their link to the Arctic Ocean 

      Sutherland, David A.; Pickart, Robert S.; Jones, E. Peter; Azetsu-Scott, Kumiko; Eert, A. Jane; Olafsson, Jon (American Geophysical Union, 2009-05-27)
      The freshwater composition of waters on the southeast Greenland shelf and slope are described using a set of high-resolution transects occupied in summer 2004, which included hydrographic, velocity, nutrient, and chemical ...
    • Freshwater content variability in the Arctic Ocean 

      Hakkinen, Sirpa M. A.; Proshutinsky, Andrey (American Geophysical Union, 2004-03-31)
      Arctic Ocean model simulations have revealed that the Arctic Ocean has a basin-wide oscillation with cyclonic and anticyclonic circulation anomalies (Arctic Ocean Oscillation (AOO)) that has a prominent decadal variability ...
    • Freshwater export from the Labrador Current to the North Atlantic Current at the Tail of the Grand Banks of Newfoundland 

      Fratantoni, Paula S.; McCartney, Michael S. (2009-11)
      Historical hydrographic data, spanning the period 1896-2006, are used to examine the annual mean and seasonal variations in the distribution of freshwater along and across the shelf/slope boundary along the Labrador and ...
    • Freshwater in the Bay of Bengal : its fate and role in air-sea heat exchange 

      Mahadevan, Amala; Spiro Jaeger, Gualtiero; Freilich, Mara; Omand, Melissa M.; Shroyer, Emily; Sengupta, Debasis (The Oceanography Society, 2016-06)
      The strong salinity stratification in the upper 50–80 m of the Bay of Bengal affects the response of the upper ocean to surface heat fluxes. Using observations from November to December 2013, we examine the effect of surface ...
    • Friction, frontogenesis, and the stratification of the surface mixed layer 

      Thomas, Leif N.; Ferrari, Raffaele (American Meteorological Society, 2008-11)
      The generation and destruction of stratification in the surface mixed layer of the ocean is understood to result from vertical turbulent transport of buoyancy and momentum driven by air–sea fluxes and stresses. In this ...
    • Frictional behavior of oceanic transform faults and its influence on earthquake characteristics 

      Liu, Yajing; McGuire, Jeffrey J.; Behn, Mark D. (American Geophysical Union, 2012-04-26)
      We use a three-dimensional strike-slip fault model in the framework of rate and state-dependent friction to investigate earthquake behavior and scaling relations on oceanic transform faults (OTFs). Gabbro friction data ...
    • Frictional secondary circulation near an upwelled thermocline 

      Csanady, Gabriel T. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1982-12)
      A first order, linear analysis of thermocline upwelling shows that a quasigeostrophic baroclinic jet accompanies the upwelling. The secondary circulation induced in such a flow field in a meridional plane by turbulent ...
    • From salty to fresh—salinity processes in the Upper-ocean Regional Study-2 (SPURS-2) : diagnosing the physics of a rainfall-dominated salinity minimum 

      Schmitt, Raymond W.; Asher, William E.; Bingham, Frederick; Carton, James A.; Centurioni, Luca R.; Farrar, J. Thomas; Gordon, Arnold L.; Hodges, Benjamin A.; Jessup, Andrew T.; Kessler, William S.; Rainville, Luc; Shcherbina, Andrey Y. (The Oceanography Society, 2015-03)
      One of the notable features of the global ocean is that the salinity of the North Atlantic is about 1 psu higher than that of the North Pacific. This contrast is thought to be due to one of the large asymmetries in the ...
    • From serpentinization to carbonation : new insights from a CO2 injection experiment 

      Klein, Frieder; McCollom, Thomas M. (2013-08)
      We injected a CO2-rich hydrous fluid of seawater chlorinity into an ongoing, mildly reducing (H2(aq) ≈ 3 mmol/kg) serpentinization experiment at 230°C and 35 MPa to examine the changes in fluid chemistry and mineralogy ...
    • From the track to the ocean : using flow control to improve marine bio-logging tags for cetaceans 

      Fiore, Giovani; Anderson, Erik J.; Garborg, C. Spencer; Murray, Mark M.; Johnson, Mark P.; Moore, Michael J.; Howle, Laurens; Shorter, K. Alex (Public Library of Science, 2017-02-14)
      Bio-logging tags are an important tool for the study of cetaceans, but superficial tags inevitably increase hydrodynamic loading. Substantial forces can be generated by tags on fast-swimming animals, potentially affecting ...
    • Frontal dynamics boost primary production in the summer stratified Mediterranean sea 

      Olita, Antonio; Capet, Arthur; Claret, Mariona; Mahadevan, Amala; Poulain, Pierre Marie; Ribotti, Alberto; Ruiz, Simon; Tintoré, Joaquín; Tovar-Sánchez, Antonio; Pascual, Ananda (2017-05)
      Bio-physical glider measurements from a unique process-oriented experiment in the Eastern Alboran Sea (AlborEx) allowed us to observe the distribution of the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) across an intense density front, ...
    • Fronts and frontogenesis in relation to vorticity 

      Petterssen, Sverre; Austin, James Murdoch (Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1942-01)
      Soon after the discovery of the polar front, it was realized that fronts were subject to processes which either increased or diminished their intensity. Thus, fronts may form in fields where the distributiori of the ...
    • Frozen magma lenses below the oceanic crust 

      Nedimovic, Mladen R.; Carbotte, Suzanne M.; Harding, Alistair J.; Detrick, Robert S.; Canales, J. Pablo; Diebold, John B.; Kent, Graham M.; Tischer, Michael; Babcock, Jeffrey M. (2005-06-15)
      The Earth's oceanic crust crystallizes from magmatic systems generated at mid-ocean ridges. Whereas a single magma body residing within the mid-crust is thought to be responsible for the generation of the upper oceanic ...
    • An FSK telemetry module for vector measuring current meters 

      Fucile, Paul D.; Valdes, James R. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1987-12)
      The EG&G Vector Measuring Current Meter (VMCM) used in mooring work provides a 20 ma Serial ASCII Instrumentation Loop (SAIL) communication system. A projected application of the VMCM is to have a surface mooring ...
    • Fukushima 137Cs at the base of planktonic food webs off Japan 

      Baumann, Zofia; Fisher, Nicholas S.; Gobler, Christopher J.; Buesseler, Ken O.; George, J. A.; Breier, Crystaline F.; Nishikawa, Jun (2015-09-18)
      The potential bioaccumulation of 137Cs in marine food webs off Japan became a concern following the release of radioactive contaminants from the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant into the coastal ocean. Previous ...
    • Fukushima and ocean radioactivity 

      Buesseler, Ken O. (The Oceanography Society, 2014-03)
      The triple disaster of the March 11, 2011, earthquake, tsunami, and subsequent radiation releases from Japan's Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant were unprecedented events for the ocean and society. In this article, ...
    • Fukushima Daiichi–derived radionuclides in the ocean : transport, fate, and impacts 

      Buesseler, Ken O.; Dai, Minhan; Aoyama, Michio; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia R.; Charmasson, Sabine; Higley, Kathryn; Maderich, Vladimir; Masque, Pere; Morris, Paul J.; Oughton, Deborah; Smith, John N. (Annual Reviews, 2016-06-30)
      The events that followed the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011, included the loss of power and overheating at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants, which led to extensive releases of radioactive gases, ...