Now showing items 1554-1573 of 5530

    • Enhanced CO2 outgassing in the Southern Ocean from a positive phase of the Southern Annular Mode 

      Lovenduski, Nicole S.; Gruber, Nicolas; Doney, Scott C.; Lima, Ivan D. (American Geophysical Union, 2007-06-20)
      We investigate the interannual variability in the flux of CO2 between the atmosphere and the Southern Ocean on the basis of hindcast simulations with a coupled physical-biogeochemical-ecological model with particular ...
    • Enhanced diapycnal diffusivity in intrusive regions of the Drake Passage 

      Merrifield, Sophia T.; St. Laurent, Louis C.; Owens, W Brechner; Thurnherr, Andreas M.; Toole, John M. (American Meteorological Society, 2016-04-05)
      Direct measurements of oceanic turbulent parameters were taken upstream of and across Drake Passage, in the region of the Subantarctic and Polar Fronts. Values of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate ε estimated by ...
    • Enhanced warming over the global subtropical western boundary currents 

      Wu, Lixin; Cai, Wenju; Zhang, Liping; Nakamura, Hisashi; Timmermann, Axel; Joyce, Terrence M.; McPhaden, Michael J.; Alexander, Michael A.; Qiu, Bo; Visbeck, Martin; Chang, Ping; Giese, Benjamin (2011-11)
      Subtropical western boundary currents are warm, fast flowing currents that form on the western side of ocean basins. They carry warm tropical water to the mid-latitudes and vent large amounts of heat and moisture to the ...
    • Enhancement in vertical fluxes at a front by mesoscale-submesoscale coupling 

      Ramachandran, Sanjiv; Tandon, Amit; Mahadevan, Amala (John Wiley & Sons, 2014-12-12)
      Oceanic frontal instabilities are of importance for the vertical exchange of properties in the ocean. Submesoscale, O(1) Rossby number, dynamics are particularly relevant for inducing the vertical (and lateral) flux of ...
    • Enhancement of fine particle deposition to permeable sediments 

      Fries, Jerry Stephen (Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2002-02)
      Predictions of deposition rate are integral to the transport of many constituents including contaminants, organic matter, and larvae. Review of the literature demonstrates a general appreciation for the potential control ...
    • An enhancement of low-frequency variability in the Kuroshio–Oyashio Extension in CCSM3 owing to ocean model biases 

      Thompson, LuAnne; Kwon, Young-Oh (American Meteorological Society, 2010-12-01)
      Enhanced decadal variability in sea surface temperature (SST) centered on the Kuroshio Extension (KE) has been found in the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3) as well as in other coupled climate models. This ...
    • Enhancement of subduction/obduction due to hurricane-induced mixed layer deepening 

      Liu, Ling Ling; Wang, Fan; Huang, Rui Xin (2011-04)
      Ventilation, including subduction and obduction, in the North Pacific is re-examined, based on SODA outputs and the Eulerian definition. The annual subduction rate averaged from 2001 to 2004 is estimated at 49.8Sv; while ...
    • Enriched iron(III)-reducing bacterial communities are shaped by carbon substrate and iron oxide mineralogy 

      Lentini, Christopher J.; Wankel, Scott D.; Hansel, Colleen M. (Frontiers Media, 2012-12-03)
      Iron (Fe) oxides exist in a spectrum of structures in the environment, with ferrihydrite widely considered the most bioavailable phase. Yet, ferrihydrite is unstable and rapidly transforms to more crystalline Fe(III) oxides ...
    • Enriched, HIMU-type peridotite and depleted recycled pyroxenite in the Canary plume : a mixed-up mantle 

      Gurenko, Andrey A.; Sobolev, Alexander V.; Hoernle, Kaj A.; Hauff, Folkmar; Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich (2008-11-15)
      The Earth’s mantle is chemically and isotopically heterogeneous, and a component of recycled oceanic crust is generally suspected in the convecting mantle [Hofmann and White, 1982. Mantle plumes from ancient oceanic crust. ...
    • Enrichment and characterization of ammonia-oxidizing archaea from the open ocean : phylogeny, physiology and stable isotope fractionation 

      Santoro, Alyson E.; Casciotti, Karen L. (2011-03-14)
      Archaeal genes for ammonia oxidation are widespread in the marine environment, but direct physiological evidence for ammonia oxidation by marine archaea is limited. We report the enrichment and characterization of three ...
    • ENSO and Pacific decadal variability in the Community Climate System Model Version 4 

      Deser, Clara; Phillips, Adam S.; Tomas, Robert A.; Okumura, Yuko M.; Alexander, Michael A.; Capotondi, Antonietta; Scott, James D.; Kwon, Young-Oh; Ohba, Masamichi (American Meteorological Society, 2012-04-15)
      This study presents an overview of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon and Pacific decadal variability (PDV) simulated in a multicentury preindustrial control integration of the NCAR Community Climate System ...
    • An ENSO shift revisited 

      Solow, Andrew R. (American Geophysical Union, 2006-11-21)
      An influential 1996 paper presented a statistical analysis showing that the prolonged ENSO warm event of the early 1990's was inconsistent with the historical pattern of ENSO variability and therefore concluded that there ...
    • ENSO’s impact on the gap wind regions of the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean 

      Alexander, Michael A.; Seo, Hyodae; Xie, Shang-Ping; Scott, James D. (American Meteorological Society, 2012-05-15)
      The recently released NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) is used to examine the response to ENSO in the northeast tropical Pacific Ocean (NETP) during 1979–2009. The normally cool Pacific sea surface temperatures ...
    • Entanglement is a costly life history stage in large whales 

      van der Hoop, Julie (2016-06-28)
      Individuals store energy to balance deficits in natural cycles; however, unnatural events can also lead to unbalanced energy budgets. Entanglement in fishing gear is one example of an unnatural but relatively common ...
    • The entrainment and homogenization of tracers within the cyclonic gulf stream recirculation gyre 

      Pickart, Robert S. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1987-01)
      The various distributions of tracer associated with the Northern Recirculation Gyre of the Gulf Stream (NRG) are studied to try to obtain information about the flow. An advective-diffusive numerical model is implemented to ...
    • Entrainment and mixed layer dynamics of a surface-stress-driven stratiified fluid 

      Manucharyan, Georgy E.; Caulfield, C. P. (2014-12)
      We consider experimentally an initially quiescent and linearly stratified fluid with buoyancy frequency NQ in a cylinder subject to surface-stress forcing from a disc of radius R spinning at a constant angular velocity Ω. ...
    • Entrainment in two coalescing axisymmetric turbulent plumes 

      Cenedese, Claudia; Linden, P. F. (Cambridge University Press, 2014-07-11)
      A model of the total volume flux and entrainment occurring in two coalescing axisymmetric turbulent plumes is developed and compared with laboratory experiments. The dynamical evolution of the two plumes is divided into ...
    • An entropic framework for AUV sensor modelling 

      Singh, Hanumant (Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1995-05-25)
      This thesis examines the general task of active sensing by defining a measure of efficiency for sensing in a particular environment. We focus on fine-scale acoustic mapping from an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). ...
    • Entropy and scintillation analysis of acoustical beam propagation through ocean internal waves 

      Morozov, Andrey K.; Colosi, John A. (Acoustical Society of America, 2005-03)
      Parabolic equation numerical simulations of waveguide acoustical beam propagation in an ocean of Garrett–Munk internal waves are used to examine the range evolution of beam properties such as beamwidth (both spectral and ...
    • Entropy rate defined by internal wave scattering in long-range propagation 

      Morozov, Andrey K.; Colosi, John A. (Acoustical Society of America, 2015-09-08)
      The reduction of information capacity of the ocean sound channel due to scattering by internal waves is a potential problem for acoustic communication, navigation, and remote sensing over long ranges. In spite of recent ...