Final cruise report, Anton Bruun cruises 4A and 4B : oceanographic data, bathythermograph positions, station lists for biological collections
International Indian Ocean Expedition
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Cruise IV of the ANTON BRUUN was planned as a three-month multi-disciplinary exploration of the Arabian Sea during the fall of 1963. The interests of applicants for the cruise ranged from chemistry and microbiology to the taxonomy, distribution, and biochemistry of the large invertebrates and fishes. In addition, Cruise IV was scheduled as one of the cooperative cruises with the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, whose personnel had planned an intensive bottom-trawling program to determine the distribution and abundance of commercially valuable species of benthic fishes and invertebrates on the continental shelf around the periphery of the Arabian Sea. Because of the broad scope of the program, the large number of qualified applicants who wished to take part, and the fact that some of the planned activities were mutually exclusive in terms of geographical area, shipboard space, etc., it was decided to split Cruise 4 into two sections, both to work in the Arabian Sea but each with different objectives, scientific programs, and personnel. Cruise IV-A included the basic program of hydrography, chemistry, and plankton biology, with extra sampling time provided for additional work in chemistry and microbiology. The basic program included 40 hydrographic casts, usually to the bottom, for determination of temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, phosphate, nitrite, nitrate, silicate, primary productivity, and chlorophyll. Three types of plankton samples were taken: (1) vertical tows from 200 meters with an Indian Ocean Standard Net, (2) vertical tows from 200 meters with a micro-plankton net, and (3) an oblique series from depth intervals of 2000-1000, 1000-500, 500-250, 250-125, and 125-0 meters with the Bé multiple plankton sampler. Special studies on Cruise 4A included sampling for dissolved and particulate organic carbon, dissolved and particulate organic nitrogen, particulate phosphorus, and particulate iron, dissolved molybdinum, culture and isolation of nitrifying bacteria, uptake of N15-tagged atmospheric nitrogen, nitrate, and ammonia, enrichment cultures of phytoplankton to study limiting factors to their growth, and sampling for larval and adult scombroid fishes. Cruise IV-A consisted for the most part of sections from the central part of the Arabian Sea into and normal to the coast. Because of time limitations, the work was concentrated in the Western Arabian Sea. Cruise IV-B consisted almost exclusively of shallow-water bottom trawling with a Gulf-of-Mexico shrimp trawl on the continental shelf from Bombay to Aden. In addition, some dredging, set-lining, handlining, and dip-netting were carried out. Basic hydrographic stations were not made on Cruise IV-B but surface and bottom measurements of temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and phosphate were made routinely at each trawling station. Reference is made to U. S. Program in Biology, I.I.O.E., News Bulletins 5 and 6 (Narrative reports of Cruises IV-A and IV-B) for a more detailed description of the work accomplished on these two cruises.
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