Hydrogen peroxide is not the cause of fish kills associated with Chattonella marina : cytological and physiological evidence
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KeywordHarmful algal bloom; HAB; Fish kill mechanism; Osmoregulation; Reactive oxygen species; Quantitative ultrastructure; Chattonella marina
Chattonella marina, a harmful algal bloom (HAB) causative species, was used to study the mortality, physiology, and pathology of a marine stenohaline fish, goldlined seabream exposed to the toxic alga. The median lethal time (LT50) was 3 h upon exposure to 8000 cells/ml of C. marina. Significant induction of filamental chloride cells (CCs) [i.e. increases in CC fractional area and in the volume density of CCs], concomitant with significant reduction of blood osmolality, were found in C. marina treated fish. To verify whether the toxicity of C. marina was mediated through oxidative stress, a hydrogen peroxide exposure experiment was carried out and the toxicity as well as cytological and physiological changes were compared with the C. marina treatment. Hydrogen peroxide at a concentration of 500 μM H2O2, (i.e. 25 times higher than that produced by 8000 cells/ml of C. marina (20 μM H2O2)) was unable to induce similar CC alterations and osmoregulatory impairment in fish as observed in the C. marina treatment. Non-specific membrane damage such as severe loss of microvilli projections on the CC apical opening and rupture of epithelial membranes in the lamellae were observed. The LT50 was 6 h, two times longer than that with 8000 cells/ml of C. marina. Based on the cytological and physiological evidence and toxicity data, the mechanism by which C. marina kills fish appears to be very different from that caused by H2O2/ROS. Osmoregulatory distress is the major cause of fish death upon exposure to C. marina.
Author Posting. © The Authors, 2005. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B. V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Aquatic Toxicology 72 (2005): 351-360, doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2005.01.007.
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