How does ocean biology affect atmospheric pCO2? Theory and models
Follows, Michael J.
Sarmiento, Jorge L.
Slater, Richard D.
MetadataShow full item record
This paper examines the sensitivity of atmospheric pCO2 to changes in ocean biology that result in drawdown of nutrients at the ocean surface. We show that the global inventory of preformed nutrients is the key determinant of atmospheric pCO2 and the oceanic carbon storage due to the soft-tissue pump (OCS soft ). We develop a new theory showing that under conditions of perfect equilibrium between atmosphere and ocean, atmospheric pCO2 can be written as a sum of exponential functions of OCS soft . The theory also demonstrates how the sensitivity of atmospheric pCO2 to changes in the soft-tissue pump depends on the preformed nutrient inventory and on surface buffer chemistry. We validate our theory against simulations of nutrient depletion in a suite of realistic general circulation models (GCMs). The decrease in atmospheric pCO2 following surface nutrient depletion depends on the oceanic circulation in the models. Increasing deep ocean ventilation by increasing vertical mixing or Southern Ocean winds increases the atmospheric pCO2 sensitivity to surface nutrient forcing. Conversely, stratifying the Southern Ocean decreases the atmospheric CO2 sensitivity to surface nutrient depletion. Surface CO2 disequilibrium due to the slow gas exchange with the atmosphere acts to make atmospheric pCO2 more sensitive to nutrient depletion in high-ventilation models and less sensitive to nutrient depletion in low-ventilation models. Our findings have potentially important implications for both past and future climates.
Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2008. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research 113 (2008): C07032, doi:10.1029/2007JC004598.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Macroalgal responses to experimental nutrient enrichment in shallow coastal waters : growth, internal nutrient pools, and isotopic signatures Teichberg, Mirta; Fox, Sophia E.; Aguila, Carolina; Olsen, Ylva S.; Valiela, Ivan (Inter-Research, 2008-09-25)Increased nutrient inputs to temperate coastal waters have led to increased occurrences of macroalgal blooms worldwide. To identify nutrients that are limiting to macroalgae and to determine whether different forms of these ...
Species compositional differences on different-aged glacial landscapes drive contrasting responses of tundra to nutrient addition Hobbie, Sarah E.; Gough, Laura; Shaver, Gaius R. (2005-01-17)In the northern foothills of the Brooks Range, Alaska, moist non-acidic tundra dominates more recently deglaciated upland landscapes, whereas moist acidic tundra dominates older upland landscapes. In previous studies, ...
Eddy transport of organic carbon and nutrients from the Chukchi Shelf : impact on the upper halocline of the western Arctic Ocean Mathis, Jeremy T.; Pickart, Robert S.; Hansell, Dennis A.; Kadko, David; Bates, Nicholas R. (American Geophysical Union, 2007-05-04)In September 2004 a detailed physical and chemical survey was conducted on an anticyclonic, cold-core eddy located seaward of the Chukchi Shelf in the western Arctic Ocean. The eddy had a diameter of ∼16 km and was centered ...