Scalar flux profile relationships over the open ocean
Edson, James B.
Zappa, Christopher J.
Ware, J. A.
McGillis, Wade R.
Hare, Jeffrey E.
MetadataShow full item record
The most commonly used flux-profile relationships are based on Monin-Obukhov (MO) similarity theory. These flux-profile relationships are required in indirect methods such as the bulk aerodynamic, profile, and inertial dissipation methods to estimate the fluxes over the ocean. These relationships are almost exclusively derived from previous field experiments conducted over land. However, the use of overland measurements to infer surface fluxes over the ocean remains questionable, particularly close to the ocean surface where wave-induced forcing can affect the flow. This study investigates the flux profile relationships over the open ocean using measurements made during the 2000 Fluxes, Air-Sea Interaction, and Remote Sensing (FAIRS) and 2001 GasEx experiments. These experiments provide direct measurement of the atmospheric fluxes along with profiles of water vapor and temperature. The specific humidity data are used to determine parameterizations of the dimensionless gradients using functional forms of two commonly used relationships. The best fit to the Businger-Dyer relationship [ Businger, 1988 ] is found using an empirical constant of a q = 13.4 ± 1.7. The best fit to a formulation that has the correct form in the limit of local free convection [e.g., Wyngaard, 1973 ] is found using a q = 29.8 ± 4.6. These values are in good agreement with the consensus values from previous overland experiments and the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) 3.0 bulk algorithm [ Fairall et al., 2003 ]; e.g., the COARE algorithm uses empirical constants of 15 and 34.2 for the Businger-Dyer and convective forms, respectively. Although the flux measurements were made at a single elevation and local similarity scaling is applied, the good agreement implies that MO similarity is valid within the marine atmospheric surface layer above the wave boundary layer.
Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2004. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research 109 (2004): C08S09, doi:10.1029/2003JC001960.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Cytochrome P450 1 genes in birds : evolutionary relationships and transcription profiles in chicken and Japanese quail embryos Jonsson, Maria E.; Woodin, Bruce R.; Stegeman, John J.; Brunstrom, Bjorn (Public Library of Science, 2011-12-02)Cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1) genes are biomarkers for aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists and may be involved in some of their toxic effects. CYP1s other than the CYP1As are poorly studied in birds. Here we characterize ...
Studies of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago water transport and its relationship to basin-local forcings : results from AO-FVCOM Zhang, Yu; Chen, Changsheng; Beardsley, Robert C.; Gao, Guoping; Lai, Zhigang; Curry, Beth; Lee, Craig M.; Lin, Huichan; Qi, Jianhua; Xu, Qichun (John Wiley & Sons, 2016-06-25)A high-resolution (up to 2 km), unstructured-grid, fully coupled Arctic sea ice-ocean Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model (AO-FVCOM) was employed to simulate the flow and transport through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago ...
Maiti, Kanchan; Charette, Matthew A.; Buesseler, Ken O.; Kahru, Mati (John Wiley & Sons, 2013-04-23)In the past two decades, a number of studies have been carried out in the Southern Ocean to look at export production using drifting sediment traps and thorium-234 based measurements, which allows us to reexamine the ...