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dc.contributor.authorGruber, Nicolas
dc.contributor.authorGloor, Emanuel
dc.contributor.authorMikaloff Fletcher, Sara E.
dc.contributor.authorDoney, Scott C.
dc.contributor.authorDutkiewicz, Stephanie
dc.contributor.authorFollows, Michael J.
dc.contributor.authorGerber, Markus
dc.contributor.authorJacobson, Andrew R.
dc.contributor.authorJoos, Fortunat
dc.contributor.authorLindsay, Keith
dc.contributor.authorMenemenlis, Dimitris
dc.contributor.authorMouchet, Anne
dc.contributor.authorMuller, Simon A.
dc.contributor.authorSarmiento, Jorge L.
dc.contributor.authorTakahashi, Taro
dc.date.accessioned2010-05-07T18:09:51Z
dc.date.available2010-05-07T18:09:51Z
dc.date.issued2009-02-18
dc.identifier.citationGlobal Biogeochemical Cycles 23 (2009): GB1005en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1912/3415
dc.descriptionAuthor Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2009. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Global Biogeochemical Cycles 23 (2009): GB1005, doi:10.1029/2008GB003349.en_US
dc.description.abstractWe synthesize estimates of the contemporary net air-sea CO2 flux on the basis of an inversion of interior ocean carbon observations using a suite of 10 ocean general circulation models (Mikaloff Fletcher et al., 2006, 2007) and compare them to estimates based on a new climatology of the air-sea difference of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) (Takahashi et al., 2008). These two independent flux estimates reveal a consistent description of the regional distribution of annual mean sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 for the decade of the 1990s and the early 2000s with differences at the regional level of generally less than 0.1 Pg C a−1. This distribution is characterized by outgassing in the tropics, uptake in midlatitudes, and comparatively small fluxes in thehigh latitudes. Both estimates point toward a small (∼ −0.3 Pg C a−1) contemporary CO2 sink in the Southern Ocean (south of 44°S), a result of the near cancellation between a substantial outgassing of natural CO2 and a strong uptake of anthropogenic CO2. A notable exception in the generally good agreement between the two estimates exists within the Southern Ocean: the ocean inversion suggests a relatively uniform uptake, while the pCO2-based estimate suggests strong uptake in the region between 58°S and 44°S, and a source in the region south of 58°S. Globally and for a nominal period between 1995 and 2000, the contemporary net air-sea flux of CO2 is estimated to be −1.7 ± 0.4 Pg C a−1 (inversion) and −1.4 ± 0.7 Pg C a−1 (pCO2-climatology), respectively, consisting of an outgassing flux of river-derived carbon of ∼+0.5 Pg C a−1, and an uptake flux of anthropogenic carbon of −2.2 ± 0.3 Pg C a−1 (inversion) and −1.9 ± 0.7 Pg C a−1 (pCO2-climatology). The two flux estimates also imply a consistent description of the contemporary meridional transport of carbon with southward ocean transport throughout most of the Atlantic basin, and strong equatorward convergence in the Indo-Pacific basins. Both transport estimates suggest a small hemispheric asymmetry with a southward transport of between −0.2 and −0.3 Pg C a−1 across the equator. While the convergence of these two independent estimates is encouraging and suggests that it is now possible to provide relatively tight constraints for the net air-sea CO2 fluxes at the regional basis, both studies are limited by their lack of consideration of long-term changes in the ocean carbon cycle, such as the recent possible stalling in the expected growth of the Southern Ocean carbon sink.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipCore financial support for this study came from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under grant NAG5-12528 to NG and SMF, with additional support by the U.S. National Science Foundation. M. Gloor was supported by the EBI nd EEE institutes at the University of Leeds. M. Gerber, SM, FJ, and AM thank the European Commission for support through CarboOcean (511176-2) and the NOCES project (EVK2-CT-2001- 00134). TT has been supported by NOAA grant NAO30AR4320179P27.en_US
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.format.mimetypetext/plain
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/postscript
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherAmerican Geophysical Unionen_US
dc.relation.urihttp://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2008GB003349
dc.subjectAir-sea carbon fluxen_US
dc.subjectCarbon fluxen_US
dc.subjectAnthropogenic CO2en_US
dc.titleOceanic sources, sinks, and transport of atmospheric CO2en_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1029/2008GB003349


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