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Oceanic sources, sinks, and transport of atmospheric CO2

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dc.contributor.author Gruber, Nicolas
dc.contributor.author Gloor, Manuel
dc.contributor.author Mikaloff Fletcher, Sara E.
dc.contributor.author Doney, Scott C.
dc.contributor.author Dutkiewicz, Stephanie
dc.contributor.author Follows, Michael J.
dc.contributor.author Gerber, Markus
dc.contributor.author Jacobson, Andrew R.
dc.contributor.author Joos, Fortunat
dc.contributor.author Lindsay, Keith
dc.contributor.author Menemenlis, Dimitris
dc.contributor.author Mouchet, Anne
dc.contributor.author Muller, Simon A.
dc.contributor.author Sarmiento, Jorge L.
dc.contributor.author Takahashi, Taro
dc.date.accessioned 2010-05-07T18:09:51Z
dc.date.available 2010-05-07T18:09:51Z
dc.date.issued 2009-02-18
dc.identifier.citation Global Biogeochemical Cycles 23 (2009): GB1005 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/1912/3415
dc.description Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2009. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Global Biogeochemical Cycles 23 (2009): GB1005, doi:10.1029/2008GB003349. en_US
dc.description.abstract We synthesize estimates of the contemporary net air-sea CO2 flux on the basis of an inversion of interior ocean carbon observations using a suite of 10 ocean general circulation models (Mikaloff Fletcher et al., 2006, 2007) and compare them to estimates based on a new climatology of the air-sea difference of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) (Takahashi et al., 2008). These two independent flux estimates reveal a consistent description of the regional distribution of annual mean sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 for the decade of the 1990s and the early 2000s with differences at the regional level of generally less than 0.1 Pg C a−1. This distribution is characterized by outgassing in the tropics, uptake in midlatitudes, and comparatively small fluxes in thehigh latitudes. Both estimates point toward a small (∼ −0.3 Pg C a−1) contemporary CO2 sink in the Southern Ocean (south of 44°S), a result of the near cancellation between a substantial outgassing of natural CO2 and a strong uptake of anthropogenic CO2. A notable exception in the generally good agreement between the two estimates exists within the Southern Ocean: the ocean inversion suggests a relatively uniform uptake, while the pCO2-based estimate suggests strong uptake in the region between 58°S and 44°S, and a source in the region south of 58°S. Globally and for a nominal period between 1995 and 2000, the contemporary net air-sea flux of CO2 is estimated to be −1.7 ± 0.4 Pg C a−1 (inversion) and −1.4 ± 0.7 Pg C a−1 (pCO2-climatology), respectively, consisting of an outgassing flux of river-derived carbon of ∼+0.5 Pg C a−1, and an uptake flux of anthropogenic carbon of −2.2 ± 0.3 Pg C a−1 (inversion) and −1.9 ± 0.7 Pg C a−1 (pCO2-climatology). The two flux estimates also imply a consistent description of the contemporary meridional transport of carbon with southward ocean transport throughout most of the Atlantic basin, and strong equatorward convergence in the Indo-Pacific basins. Both transport estimates suggest a small hemispheric asymmetry with a southward transport of between −0.2 and −0.3 Pg C a−1 across the equator. While the convergence of these two independent estimates is encouraging and suggests that it is now possible to provide relatively tight constraints for the net air-sea CO2 fluxes at the regional basis, both studies are limited by their lack of consideration of long-term changes in the ocean carbon cycle, such as the recent possible stalling in the expected growth of the Southern Ocean carbon sink. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship Core financial support for this study came from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under grant NAG5-12528 to NG and SMF, with additional support by the U.S. National Science Foundation. M. Gloor was supported by the EBI nd EEE institutes at the University of Leeds. M. Gerber, SM, FJ, and AM thank the European Commission for support through CarboOcean (511176-2) and the NOCES project (EVK2-CT-2001- 00134). TT has been supported by NOAA grant NAO30AR4320179P27. en_US
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.format.mimetype text/plain
dc.format.mimetype application/postscript
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher American Geophysical Union en_US
dc.relation.uri http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2008GB003349
dc.subject Air-sea carbon flux en_US
dc.subject Carbon flux en_US
dc.subject Anthropogenic CO2 en_US
dc.title Oceanic sources, sinks, and transport of atmospheric CO2 en_US
dc.type Article en_US
dc.identifier.doi 10.1029/2008GB003349


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