Distribution and phylogeny of Penelope-like elements in eukaryotes
Penelope-like elements (PLEs) are a relatively little studied class of eukaryotic retroelements, distinguished by the presence of the GIY-YIG endonuclease domain, the ability of some representatives to retain introns, and the similarity of PLE-encoded reverse transcriptases to telomerases. Although these retrotransposons are abundant in many animal genomes, the reverse transcriptase moiety can also be found in several protists, fungi, and plants, indicating its ancient origin. A comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of PLEs was conducted, based on extended sequence alignments and a considerably expanded data set. PLEs exhibit the pattern of evolution similar to that of non-LTR retrotransposons, which form deep-branching clades dating back to the Precambrian era. However, PLEs seem to have experienced a much higher degree of lineage losses than non-LTR retrotransposons. It is suggested that PLEs and non-LTR retrotransposons are included into a larger eTPRT (eukaryotic target-primed) group of retroelements, characterized by 5' truncation, variable target-site duplication, and the potential of the 3' end to participate in formation of non-autonomous derivatives.
Author Posting. © Society of Systematic Biologists, 2006. This article is posted here by permission of Oxford University Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Systematic Biology 55 (2006): 875-885, doi:10.1080/10635150601077683.
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Schostak, Nataliya; Pyatkov, Konstantin; Zelentsova, Elena; Arkhipova, Irina R.; Shagin, Dmitrii; Shagina, Irina; Mudrik, Elena; Blintsov, Anatolii; Clark, Ivan; Finnegan, David J.; Evgenev, Michael B. (Oxford University Press, 2008-03-04)Penelope-like elements (PLEs) represent a new class of retroelements identified in more than 80 species belonging to at least 10 animal phyla. Penelope isolated from Drosophila virilis is the only known transpositionally ...
Gladyshev, Eugene A.; Arkhipova, Irina R. (2007-02-27)The evolutionary origin of telomerases, enzymes that maintain the ends of linear chromosomes in most eukaryotes, is a subject of debate. Penelope-like elements (PLEs) are a recently described class of eukaryotic retroelements ...
Endonuclease-containing Penelope retrotransposons in the bdelloid rotifer Adineta vaga exhibit unusual structural features and play a role in expansion of host gene families Arkhipova, Irina R.; Yushenova, Irina A.; Rodriguez, Fernando (BioMed Central, 2013-08-27)Penelope-like elements (PLEs) are an enigmatic group of retroelements sharing a common ancestor with telomerase reverse transcriptases. In our previous studies, we identified endonuclease-deficient PLEs that are associated ...