Geoacoustic inversion in laterally varying shallow-water environments using high-resolution wavenumber estimation
Becker, Kyle M.
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Gulf of Mexico
KeywordUnderwater acoustics; Ocean bottom; Marine sediments; Inversion; High resolution spectroscopy
Sound propagation in shallow water is highly dependent on the interaction of the sound field with the bottom. In order to fully understand this problem, it is necessary to obtain reliable estimates of bottom geoacoustic properties that can be used in acoustic propagation codes. In this thesis, perturbative inversion methods and exact inverse methods are discussed as a means for inferring geoacoustic properties of the bottom. For each of these methods, the input data to the inversion is the horizontal wavenumber spectrum of a point-source acoustic field. The main thrust of the thesis work concerns extracting horizontal wavenumber content for fully three-dimensionally varying waveguide environments. In this context, a high-resolution autoregressive (AR) spectral estimator was applied to determine wavenumber content for short aperture data. As part of this work, the AR estimator was examined for its ability to detect discrete wavenumbers in the presence of noise and also to resolve closely spaced wavenumbers for short aperture data. As part of a geoacoustic inversion workshop, the estimator was applied to extract horizontal wavenumber content for synthetic pressure field data with range-varying geoacoustic properties in the sediment. The resulting wavenumber content was used as input data to a perturbative inverse algorithm to determine the sound speed profile in the sediment. It was shown using the high-resolution wavenumber estimator that both the shape and location of the range-variability in the sediment could be determined. The estimator was also applied to determine wavenumbers for synthetic data where the water column sound speed contained temporal variations due to the presence of internal waves. It was shown that reliable estimates of horizontal wavenumbers could be obtained that are consistent with the boundary conditions of the waveguide. The Modal Mapping Experiment (MOMAX), an experimental method for measuring the full spatial variability of a propagating sound field and its corresponding modal content in two-dimensions, is also discussed. The AR estimator is applied to extract modal content from the real data and interpreted with respect to source/receiver motion and geometry. For a moving source, it is shown that the wavenumber content is Doppler shifted. A method is then described that allows the direct measure of modal group velocities from Doppler shifted wavenumber spectra. Finally, numerical studies are presented addressing the practical issues associated with using MOMAX type data in the exact inversion method of Gelfand-Levitan.
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution February 2002
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