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dc.contributor.authorRathore, Saurabh  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorBindoff, Nathaniel L.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorUmmenhofer, Caroline C.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorPhillips, Helen E.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorFeng, Ming  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorMishra, Mayank  Concept link
dc.date.accessioned2021-07-15T19:46:52Z
dc.date.issued2021-03-01
dc.identifier.citationRathore, S., Bindoff, N. L., Ummenhofer, C. C., Phillips, H. E., Feng, M., & Mishra, M. (2021). Improving Australian rainfall prediction using sea surface salinity. Journal of Climate, 34(7), 2473-2490.en_US
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/1912/27362
dc.descriptionAuthor Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2021. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Climate 34(7), (2021): 2473-2490, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0625.1.en_US
dc.description.abstractThis study uses sea surface salinity (SSS) as an additional precursor for improving the prediction of summer [December–February (DJF)] rainfall over northeastern Australia. From a singular value decomposition between SSS of prior seasons and DJF rainfall, we note that SSS of the Indo-Pacific warm pool region [SSSP (150°E–165°W and 10°S–10°N) and SSSI (50°–95°E and 10°S–10°N)] covaries with Australian rainfall, particularly in the northeast region. Composite analysis that is based on high or low SSS events in the SSSP and SSSI regions is performed to understand the physical links between the SSS and the atmospheric moisture originating from the regions of anomalously high or low, respectively, SSS and precipitation over Australia. The composites show the signature of co-occurring La Niña and negative Indian Ocean dipole with anomalously wet conditions over Australia and conversely show the signature of co-occurring El Niño and positive Indian Ocean dipole with anomalously dry conditions there. During the high SSS events of the SSSP and SSSI regions, the convergence of incoming moisture flux results in anomalously wet conditions over Australia with a positive soil moisture anomaly. Conversely, during the low SSS events of the SSSP and SSSI regions, the divergence of incoming moisture flux results in anomalously dry conditions over Australia with a negative soil moisture anomaly. We show from the random-forest regression analysis that the local soil moisture, El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and SSSP are the most important precursors for the northeast Australian rainfall whereas for the Brisbane region ENSO, SSSP, and the Indian Ocean dipole are the most important. The prediction of Australian rainfall using random-forest regression shows an improvement by including SSS from the prior season. This evidence suggests that sustained observations of SSS can improve the monitoring of the Australian regional hydrological cycle.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThis research is funded through the Earth System and Climate Change Hub of the Australian government’s National Environmental Science Programme. The assistance of computing resources from the National Computational Infrastructure supported by the Australian Government is acknowledged. Author Ummenhofer acknowledges support from the U.S. National Science Foundation under Grant OCE-1663704. Author Feng was supported by the Centre for Southern Hemisphere Oceans Research (CSHOR), which is a joint initiative between the Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (QNLM), CSIRO, University of New South Wales, and the University of Tasmania. The authors also acknowledge Dr. Manali Pal for technical discussion on machine learning.en_US
dc.publisherAmerican Meteorological Societyen_US
dc.relation.urihttps://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0625.1
dc.subjectENSOen_US
dc.subjectFlood eventsen_US
dc.subjectHydrologic cycleen_US
dc.subjectMachine learningen_US
dc.subjectRainfallen_US
dc.subjectSalinityen_US
dc.subjectSeasonal forecastingen_US
dc.subjectSoil moistureen_US
dc.titleImproving Australian rainfall prediction using sea surface salinityen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.description.embargo2021-09-01en_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0625.1
dc.embargo.liftdate2021-09-01


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