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dc.contributor.authorKropp, Heather  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorLoranty, Michael M.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorNatali, Susan M.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorKholodov, Alexander L.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorRocha, Adrian V.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorMyers-Smith, Isla H.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorAbbott, Benjamin W.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorAbermann, Jakob  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorBlanc-Betes, Elena  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorBlok, Daan  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorBlume-Werry, Gesche  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorBoike, Julia  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorBreen, Amy L.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorCahoon, Sean M. P.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorChristiansen, Casper T.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorDouglas, Thomas A.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorEpstein, Howard E.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorFrost, Gerald V.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorGoeckede, Mathias  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorHøye, Toke T.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorMamet, Steven D.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorO’Donnell, Jonathan A.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorOlefeldt, David  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorPhoenix, Gareth K.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorSalmon, Verity G.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorSannel, A. Britta K.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorSmith, Sharon L.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorSonnentag, Oliver  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorSmith Vaughn, Lydia  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorWilliams, Mathew  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorElberling, Bo  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorGough, Laura  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorHjort, Jan  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorLafleur, Peter M.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorEuskirchen, Eugenie  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorHeijmans, Monique M. P. D.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorHumphreys, Elyn  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorIwata, Hiroki  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorJones, Benjamin M.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorJorgenson, M. Torre  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorGrünberg, Inge  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorKim, Yongwon  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorLaundre, James A.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorMauritz, Marguerite  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorMichelsen, Anders  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorSchaepman-Strub, Gabriela  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorTape, Ken D.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorUeyama, Masahito  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorLee, Bang-Yong  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorLangley, Kirsty  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorLund, Magnus  Concept link
dc.date.accessioned2021-03-17T15:03:36Z
dc.date.available2021-03-17T15:03:36Z
dc.date.issued2020-12-18
dc.identifier.citationKropp, H., Loranty, M. M., Natali, S. M., Kholodov, A. L., Rocha, A., V., Myers-Smith, I., Abbot, B. W., Abermann, J., Blanc-Betes, E., Blok, D., Blume-Werry, G., Boike, J., Breen, A. L., Cahoon, S. M. P., Christiansen, C. T., Douglas, T. A., Epstein, H. E., Frost, G., V., Goeckede, M., Hoye, T. T., Mamet, S. D., O'Donnell, J. A., Olefeldt, D., Phoenix, G. K., Salmon, V. G., Sannel, A. B. K., Smith, S. L., Sonnentag, O., Vaughn, L. S., Williams, M., Elberling, B., Gough, L., Hjort, J., Lafleur, P. M., Euskirchen, E. S., Heijmans, M. M. P. D., Humphreys, E. R., Iwata, H., Jones, B. M., Jorgenson, M. T., Gruenberg, I., Kim, Y., Laundre, J., Mauritz, M., Michelsen, A., Schaepman-Strub, G., Tape, K. D., Ueyama, M., Lee, B., Langley, K., & Lund, M. (2021). Shallow soils are warmer under trees and tall shrubs across arctic and boreal ecosystems. Environmental Research Letters, 16(1), 015001.en_US
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/1912/26820
dc.description© The Author(s), 2021. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Kropp, H., Loranty, M. M., Natali, S. M., Kholodov, A. L., Rocha, A., V., Myers-Smith, I., Abbot, B. W., Abermann, J., Blanc-Betes, E., Blok, D., Blume-Werry, G., Boike, J., Breen, A. L., Cahoon, S. M. P., Christiansen, C. T., Douglas, T. A., Epstein, H. E., Frost, G., V., Goeckede, M., Hoye, T. T., Mamet, S. D., O'Donnell, J. A., Olefeldt, D., Phoenix, G. K., Salmon, V. G., Sannel, A. B. K., Smith, S. L., Sonnentag, O., Vaughn, L. S., Williams, M., Elberling, B., Gough, L., Hjort, J., Lafleur, P. M., Euskirchen, E. S., Heijmans, M. M. P. D., Humphreys, E. R., Iwata, H., Jones, B. M., Jorgenson, M. T., Gruenberg, I., Kim, Y., Laundre, J., Mauritz, M., Michelsen, A., Schaepman-Strub, G., Tape, K. D., Ueyama, M., Lee, B., Langley, K., & Lund, M. Shallow soils are warmer under trees and tall shrubs across arctic and boreal ecosystems. Environmental Research Letters, 16(1), (2021): 015001. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/abc994.en_US
dc.description.abstractSoils are warming as air temperatures rise across the Arctic and Boreal region concurrent with the expansion of tall-statured shrubs and trees in the tundra. Changes in vegetation structure and function are expected to alter soil thermal regimes, thereby modifying climate feedbacks related to permafrost thaw and carbon cycling. However, current understanding of vegetation impacts on soil temperature is limited to local or regional scales and lacks the generality necessary to predict soil warming and permafrost stability on a pan-Arctic scale. Here we synthesize shallow soil and air temperature observations with broad spatial and temporal coverage collected across 106 sites representing nine different vegetation types in the permafrost region. We showed ecosystems with tall-statured shrubs and trees (>40 cm) have warmer shallow soils than those with short-statured tundra vegetation when normalized to a constant air temperature. In tree and tall shrub vegetation types, cooler temperatures in the warm season do not lead to cooler mean annual soil temperature indicating that ground thermal regimes in the cold-season rather than the warm-season are most critical for predicting soil warming in ecosystems underlain by permafrost. Our results suggest that the expansion of tall shrubs and trees into tundra regions can amplify shallow soil warming, and could increase the potential for increased seasonal thaw depth and increase soil carbon cycling rates and lead to increased carbon dioxide loss and further permafrost thaw.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipWe thank G Peter Kershaw, LeeAnn Fishback, Cathy Wilson, and Coleen Iversen for assistance in collection of data. We thank the Permafrost Carbon Network for support and organization of the data synthesis. We thank Vladimir Romanovsky for his feedback and contribution of publicly available data. This project was supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant No. 1417745 to M L, Grant No. 1417700 to S M N, Grant No. 1417908 to A K, Grant No. 1556772 to A R, Grant No. 1637459 to L G, Grant No. 1636476 and Grant No. 1503912 to E S E, Grant No. 1806213 to B M J, Grant No. 1833056 to K D T), UK Natural Environment Research Council (Grant No. NE/M016323/1 to I H M S, Grant No. NE/K00025X/1 to G K P, Grant No. NE/K000292/1 to M W), Natural Sciences and Engineering Research (to P L, I H M S, Grant No. RGPIN-2016-04688 to D O), Council of Canada, Canadian Graduate Scholarship to (I H M -S), Greenland Ecosystem Monitoring Programme: ClimateBasis (to J A and K A), The Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE Arctic) project is supported by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research in the DOE Office of Science (to A L B), Engineer Research and Development Center Army Direct (6.1) Research Program and the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (projects RC-2110 and 18-1170 to T A D), United States Geological Survey (to E E S), Arctic Challenge for Sustainability (ArCS; Grant No. JPMXD1300000000) and ArCS II (Grant No. JPMXD1420318865) (to M U and H I), the Danish National Research Foundation (Grant No. CENPERM DNRF100 to B E), the Academy of Finland (Grant No. 315519), the National Research Foundation of Korea (Grant Nos. NRF-2016M1A5A1901769; KOPRI-PN20081 to K Y and B Y L), Research Network for Geosciences in Berlin and Potsdam (to I G), the Swiss National Science Foundation (Grant No. 140631 to G S S), the URPP Global Change and Biodiversity, University of Zurich (to G S S), the University of Alberta Northern Research Awards (to D O), and the Northern Scientific Training Program (to D O), and UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research (to V G S). S M has been supported by grants and/or in-kind from Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, AMAX Northwest Mining, Co. (North American Tungsten Corp., Ltd), Imperial Oil, Ltd, University of Alberta, Earthwatch International (EI), The Garfield Weston Foundation, Wapusk National Park, Churchill Northern Studies Centre, and the Northern Scientific Training Program. All code for this project are archived (DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.4041165). The data that support the findings of this study are openly available through the Arctic Data Center (Heather Kropp, Michael Loranty, Britta Sannel, Jonathan O'Donnell, Elena Blanc-Betes, et al 2020. Synthesis of soil-air temperature and vegetation measurements in the pan-Arctic. 1990-2016. Arctic Data Center. doi:10.18739/A2736M31X).en_US
dc.publisherIOP Publishingen_US
dc.relation.urihttps://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/abc994
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 International*
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/*
dc.subjectArcticen_US
dc.subjectboreal foresten_US
dc.subjectsoil temperatureen_US
dc.subjectvegetation changeen_US
dc.subjectpermafrosten_US
dc.titleShallow soils are warmer under trees and tall shrubs across arctic and boreal ecosystemsen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1088/1748-9326/abc994


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