Molecular phylogeny and synonymy of Balechina gracilis comb. nov. (=Gymnodinium gracile), a widespread polymorphic unarmored dinoflagellate (Dinophyceae)
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KeywordDinophyta; naked Dinoflagellata; Gymnodiniales; new combination; taxonomy; molecular phylogenetics
Gymnodinium gracile, described from the coasts of Denmark in 1881, is one of the first described unarmored dinoflagellates. Individuals which morphologically fit with the original description were isolated from the English Channel (North‐East Atlantic). The SSU rRNA gene sequences were identical to the sequences identified as Balechina pachydermata and Gymnodinium amphora from the Mediterranean Sea and Brazil. We propose the transfer of Gymnodinium gracile into the genus Balechina as B. gracilis comb. nov. These sequences constitute an independent lineage, clustering with numerous environmental sequences from polar to tropical waters. The widespread distribution, the high plasticity in size, shape and coloration and the difficulties in discerning the fine longitudinal striae have contributed to the description of numerous synonyms: Amphidinium vasculum, Balechina pachydermata (=Gymnodinium pachydermatum), Gymnodinium achromaticum, G. abbreviatum, G. amphora, G. dogielii, G. lohmannii (=G. roseum sensu Lohmann 1908), G. situla and Gyrodinium cuneatum (=G. gracile sensu Pouchet 1885).
Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2021. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of John Wiley & Sons for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Phycology, doi:10.1111/jpy.13135.
Suggested CitationGómez, F., Artigas, L.F. and Gast, R.J. (2021), Molecular phylogeny and synonymy of Balechina gracilis comb. nov. (=Gymnodinium gracile), a widespread polymorphic unarmored dinoflagellate (Dinophyceae). Journal of Phycology. Accepted Author Manuscript.
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