Editorial: role of protein palmitoylation in synaptic plasticity and neuronal differentiation
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Keywordpalmitoylation and depalmitoylation; synaptic plasticity; axonal growth; lysosome; neurodegenerative disease; neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL); Huntington disease
Protein palmitoylation, the reversible addition of palmitate to proteins, is a dynamic post-translational modification. Both membrane (e.g., channels, transporters, and receptors) and cytoplasmic proteins (e.g., cell adhesion, scaffolding, cytoskeletal, and signaling molecules) are substrates. In mammals, palmitoylation is mediated by 23-24 palmitoyl acyltransferases (PATs), also called ZDHHCs for their catalytic aspartate-histidine-histidine-cysteine (DHCC) domain. PATs are integral membrane proteins found in cellular membranes. In the palmitoylation cycle, palmitate is removed by the depalmitoylation enzymes, acyl palmitoyl transferases (APT1 and 2), and α/β Hydrolase domain-containing protein 17 (ABHD17A-C). These are cytoplasmic proteins that are targeted to membranes where they are substrates for PATs. The second class of depalmitoylating enzymes are palmitoyl thioesterases, PPT1 and 2, discovered through their association with infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. These are secreted proteins found in the lumen of intracellular organelles, primarily lysosomes, where their function as depalmitoylating enzymes is unclear.
© The Author(s), 2020. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Yoshii, A., & Green, W. N. Editorial: role of protein palmitoylation in synaptic plasticity and neuronal differentiation. Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience, 12(27), (2020), doi:10.3389/fnsyn.2020.00027.
Suggested CitationYoshii, A., & Green, W. N. (2020). Editorial: role of protein palmitoylation in synaptic plasticity and neuronal differentiation. Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience, 12(27).
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