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dc.contributor.authorDeeds, Jonathan R.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorStutts, Whitney L.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorCeliz, Mary Dawn  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorMacLeod, Jill  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorHamilton, Amy E.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorLewis, Bryant J.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorMiller, David W.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorKanwit, Kohl  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorSmith, Juliette L.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorKulis, David M.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorMcCarron, Pearse  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorRauschenberg, Carlton D.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorBurnell, Craig A.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorArcher, Stephen D.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorBorchert, Jerry  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorLankford, Shelley K.  Concept link
dc.date.accessioned2020-09-15T21:08:09Z
dc.date.available2020-09-15T21:08:09Z
dc.date.issued2020-08-20
dc.identifier.citationDeeds, J. R., Stutts, W. L., Celiz, M. D., MacLeod, J., Hamilton, A. E., Lewis, B. J., Miller, D. W., Kanwit, K., Smith, J. L., Kulis, D. M., McCarron, P., Rauschenberg, C. D., Burnell, C. A., Archer, S. D., Borchert, J., & Lankford, S. K. (2020). Dihydrodinophysistoxin-1 produced by Dinophysis norvegica in the Gulf of Maine, USA and its accumulation in shellfish. Toxins, 12(9), E533.en_US
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/1912/26175
dc.description© The Author(s), 2020. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Deeds, J. R., Stutts, W. L., Celiz, M. D., MacLeod, J., Hamilton, A. E., Lewis, B. J., Miller, D. W., Kanwit, K., Smith, J. L., Kulis, D. M., McCarron, P., Rauschenberg, C. D., Burnell, C. A., Archer, S. D., Borchert, J., & Lankford, S. K. Dihydrodinophysistoxin-1 produced by Dinophysis norvegica in the Gulf of Maine, USA and its accumulation in shellfish. Toxins, 12(9), (2020): E533, doi:10.3390/toxins12090533.en_US
dc.description.abstractDihydrodinophysistoxin-1 (dihydro-DTX1, (M-H)−m/z 819.5), described previously from a marine sponge but never identified as to its biological source or described in shellfish, was detected in multiple species of commercial shellfish collected from the central coast of the Gulf of Maine, USA in 2016 and in 2018 during blooms of the dinoflagellate Dinophysis norvegica. Toxin screening by protein phosphatase inhibition (PPIA) first detected the presence of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning-like bioactivity; however, confirmatory analysis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) failed to detect okadaic acid (OA, (M-H)−m/z 803.5), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1, (M-H)−m/z 817.5), or dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX2, (M-H)−m/z 803.5) in samples collected during the bloom. Bioactivity-guided fractionation followed by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) tentatively identified dihydro-DTX1 in the PPIA active fraction. LC-MS/MS measurements showed an absence of OA, DTX1, and DTX2, but confirmed the presence of dihydro-DTX1 in shellfish during blooms of D. norvegica in both years, with results correlating well with PPIA testing. Two laboratory cultures of D. norvegica isolated from the 2018 bloom were found to produce dihydro-DTX1 as the sole DSP toxin, confirming the source of this compound in shellfish. Estimated concentrations of dihydro-DTX1 were >0.16 ppm in multiple shellfish species (max. 1.1 ppm) during the blooms in 2016 and 2018. Assuming an equivalent potency and molar response to DTX1, the authority initiated precautionary shellfish harvesting closures in both years. To date, no illnesses have been associated with the presence of dihydro-DTX1 in shellfish in the Gulf of Maine region and studies are underway to determine the potency of this new toxin relative to the currently regulated DSP toxins in order to develop appropriate management guidance.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipPartial support for this research was received from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science Competitive Research, Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms Program under awards NA17NOS4780184 and NA19NOS4780182 to Juliette Smith (VIMS) and Jonathan Deeds (US FDA), and Prevention, Control, and Mitigation of Harmful Algal Blooms program award NA17NOS4780179 to Stephen Archer. This paper is ECOHAB publication number EC0956.en_US
dc.publisherToxinsen_US
dc.relation.urihttps://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12090533
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 International*
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/*
dc.subjectdiarrhetic shellfish poisoningen_US
dc.subjectdihydro-DTX1en_US
dc.subjectDinophysis norvegicaen_US
dc.subjectGulf of Maine USAen_US
dc.titleDihydrodinophysistoxin-1 produced by Dinophysis norvegica in the Gulf of Maine, USA and its accumulation in shellfishen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/toxins12090533


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