Lessening the hazards of Florida red tides: a common sense approach
Fleming, Lora E.
Ullmann, Steven G.
Beet, Andrew R.
Harrison, Kate K.
Li, Zongchao C.
Diaz, Roberto E.
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Keywordharmful algal bloom; Florida red tide; Karenia brevis; economic effect; policy response; social amplification of risk; risk communication
In the Gulf of Mexico, especially along the southwest Florida coast, blooms of the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis are a coastal natural hazard. The organism produces a potent class of toxins, known as brevetoxins, which are released following cell lysis into ocean or estuarine waters or, upon aerosolization, into the atmosphere. When exposed to sufficient levels of brevetoxins, humans may suffer from respiratory, gastrointestinal, or neurological illnesses. The hazard has been exacerbated by the geometric growth of human populations, including both residents and tourists, along Florida’s southwest coast. Impacts to marine organisms or ecosystems also may occur, such as fish kills or deaths of protected mammals, turtles, or birds. Since the occurrence of a severe Karenia brevis bloom off the southwest Florida coast three-quarters of a century ago, there has been an ongoing debate about the best way for humans to mitigate the impacts of this hazard. Because of the importance of tourism to coastal Florida, there are incentives for businesses and governments alike to obfuscate descriptions of these blooms, leading to the social amplification of risk. We argue that policies to improve the public’s ability to understand the physical attributes of blooms, specifically risk communication policies, are to be preferred over physical, chemical, or biological controls. In particular, we argue that responses to this type of hazard must emphasize maintaining the continuity of programs of scientific research, environmental monitoring, public education, and notification. We propose a common-sense approach to risk communication, comprising a simplification of the public provision of existing sources of information to be made available on a mobile website.
© The Author(s), 2020. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Hoagland, P., Kirkpatrick, B., Jin, D., Kirkpatrick, G., Fleming, L. E., Ullmann, S. G., Beet, A., Hitchcock, G., Harrison, K. K., Li, Z. C., Garrison, B., Diaz, R. E., & Lovko, V. Lessening the hazards of Florida red tides: a common sense approach. Frontiers in Marine Science, 7, (2020): 538, doi:10.3389/fmars.2020.00538.
Suggested CitationHoagland, P., Kirkpatrick, B., Jin, D., Kirkpatrick, G., Fleming, L. E., Ullmann, S. G., Beet, A., Hitchcock, G., Harrison, K. K., Li, Z. C., Garrison, B., Diaz, R. E., & Lovko, V. (2020). Lessening the hazards of Florida red tides: a common sense approach. Frontiers in Marine Science, 7, 538.
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Diaz, Roberto E.; Moore, Tamecia; Ullmann, Steven G.; Hoagland, Porter; Beet, Andrew R.; Jin, Di; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Fleming, Lora E.; Hitchcock, Gary (2015-11-15)Karenia brevis is a marine dinoflagellate responsible for Florida red tide (FRT) blooms off the west coast of Florida. K. brevis contains brevetoxins, a neurotoxin that is absorbed by shellfish as well as released into the ...
CHANS : modeling the dynamics of HABs, human communities, and policy choices along the Florida Gulf Coast Hoagland, Porter; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Hitchcock, Gary; Ullmann, Steven G.; Reich, Andrew; Fleming, Lora E.; Jin, Di; Beet, Andrew R.; Li, Cathy; Garrison, Bruce; Lovko, Vince; Kohler, Kate; Rudge, Katrin (2015-11-19)Coupled human-nature systems (CHANS) involve dynamic interactions between humans and nature, often influenced by and affecting the distinct dynamic characteristics of each component. We present an overview of an ongoing ...
Hoagland, Porter; Jin, Di; Polansky, Lara Y.; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Fleming, Lora E.; Reich, Andrew; Watkins, Sharon M.; Ullmann, Steven G.; Backer, Lorraine C. (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 2009-05-01)Algal blooms of Karenia brevis, a harmful marine algae, occur almost annually off the west coast of Florida. At high concentrations, K. brevis blooms can cause harm through the release of potent toxins, known as brevetoxins, ...