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dc.contributor.authorSpain, Erica A.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorJohnson, Sean C.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorHutton, Briony  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorWhittaker, Joanne M.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorLucieer, Vanessa  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorWatson, Sally  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorFox, Jodi M.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorLupton, John E.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorArculus, Richard J.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorBradney, A.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorCoffin, Millard F.  Concept link
dc.date.accessioned2020-06-08T21:19:00Z
dc.date.available2020-06-08T21:19:00Z
dc.date.issued2019-12-10
dc.identifier.citationSpain, E. A., Johnson, S. C., Hutton, B., Whittaker, J. M., Lucieer, V., Watson, S. J., Fox, J. M., Lupton, J., Arculus, R., Bradney, A., & Coffin, M. F. (2020). Shallow seafloor gas emissions near Heard and McDonald Islands on the Kerguelen Plateau, Southern Indian Ocean. Earth and Space Science, 7(3), e2019EA000695.en_US
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/1912/25829
dc.description© The Author(s), 2020. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Spain, E. A., Johnson, S. C., Hutton, B., Whittaker, J. M., Lucieer, V., Watson, S. J., Fox, J. M., Lupton, J., Arculus, R., Bradney, A., & Coffin, M. F. Shallow seafloor gas emissions near Heard and McDonald Islands on the Kerguelen Plateau, Southern Indian Ocean. Earth and Space Science, 7(3), (2020): e2019EA000695, doi:10.1029/2019EA000695.en_US
dc.description.abstractBubble emission mechanisms from submerged large igneous provinces remains enigmatic. The Kerguelen Plateau, a large igneous province in the southern Indian Ocean, has a long sustained history of active volcanism and glacial/interglacial cycles of sedimentation, both of which may cause seafloor bubble production. We present the results of hydroacoustic flare observations around the underexplored volcanically active Heard Island and McDonald Islands on the Central Kerguelen Plateau. Flares were observed with a split‐beam echosounder and characterized using multifrequency decibel differencing. Deep‐tow camera footage, water properties, water column δ3He, subbottom profile, and sediment δ13C and δ34S data were analyzed to consider flare mechanisms. Excess δ3He near McDonald Islands seeps, indicating mantle‐derived input, suggests proximal hydrothermal activity; McDonald Islands flares may thus indicate CO2, methane, and other minor gas bubbles associated with shallow diffuse hydrothermal venting. The Heard Island seep environment, with subbottom acoustic blanking in thick sediment, muted 3He signal, and δ13C and δ34S fractionation factors, suggest that Heard Island seeps may either be methane gas (possibly both shallow biogenic methane and deeper‐sourced thermogenic methane related to geothermal heat from onshore volcanism) or a combination of methane and CO2, such as seen in sediment‐hosted geothermal systems. These data provide the first evidence of submarine gas escape on the Central Kerguelen Plateau and expand our understanding of seafloor processes and carbon cycling in the data‐poor southern Indian Ocean. Extensive sedimentation of the Kerguelen Plateau and additional zones of submarine volcanic activity mean additional seeps or vents may lie outside the small survey area proximal to the islands.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipWe thank the Australian Marine National Facility (MNF) for its support in the form of sea time on RV Investigator , support personnel, scientific equipment, and data management. We also thank the captain, crew, and fellow scientists of RV Investigator voyage IN2016_V01. We also thank specifically the following: T. Martin, F. Cooke, S. L. Sow, N. Bax, J. Ford, and F. Althaus, CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation); Echoview Software Pty. Ltd. (Hobart, Australia); C. Dietz and C. Cook, Central Science Laboratory, University of Tasmania; C. Wilkinson and T. Baumberger, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; R. Carey, University of Tasmania; T. Holmes, Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania; N. Polmear; and A. Post, Geoscience Australia. The overall science of the project is supported by Australian Antarctic Science Program (AASP) grant 4338. E.S.' PhD research is supported by the Australian Research Council's Special Research Initiative Antarctic Gateway Partnership (Project ID SR140300001) and by an Australian Government Research Training Program Scholarship. S.C.J. is supported by iCRAG under SFI, European Regional Development Fund, and industry partners, as well as ANZIC‐IODP. J.M.W. is supported by ARC grant DE140100376 and DP180102280. This is PMEL publication number 4910. All IN2016_V01 data and samples acquired on IN2016_V01 are made publicly available in accordance with MNF policy.en_US
dc.publisherAmerican Geophysical Unionen_US
dc.relation.urihttps://doi.org/10.1029/2019EA000695
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 International*
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/*
dc.subjectLarge Igneous Provinceen_US
dc.subjecthydroacoustic flaresen_US
dc.subjectcold methane seepen_US
dc.subjectshallow hydrothermalen_US
dc.subjectgeothermalen_US
dc.subjectgas bubblesen_US
dc.titleShallow seafloor gas emissions near Heard and McDonald Islands on the Kerguelen Plateau, Southern Indian Oceanen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1029/2019EA000695


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Attribution 4.0 International
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution 4.0 International