Sound scattering by live zooplankton and micronekton : empirical studies with a dual-beam acoustical system
Wiebe, Peter H.
Greene, Charles H.
Stanton, Timothy K.
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KeywordSound waves; Backscattering; Khz range 100–1000; Zooplankton; Cross sections; Sonar; Remote sensing
Measurements and analyses are presented of the backscattering of 420-kHz sound by 43 individual animals of representative zooplanktonic and micronektonic taxa. Direct measurements of an individual's target strength were made with a commercial dual-beam sonar system in an enclosure filled with filtered seawater deployed off a dock at Friday Harbor, Washington. The dependence of target stengths upon individual length, wet weight, and dry weight was investigated. In addition, the ``target strength'' and statistical variations of echo amplitude due to variations in shape and orientation of the organism were compared with acoustic scattering models involving different shapes (the general shapes of the sphere, and straight and uniformly bent finite cylinders were used along with attempts to take into account roughness). It was found that: (1) backscattering cross sections are proportional to volume of the organisms rather than area as would be predicted by a sphere scattering model, (2) mean target strength based on average backscattering crossection is best described by the bent cylinder model whose modal series solution is truncated, and (3) the fluctuations of the echo amplitudes are well described by the Rice probability density function whose shape parameter is related to the randomly rough straight cylinder model. These extensive studies showed conclusively that the elongated animals scattered sound more like elongated targets than spherical ones, thus demonstrating the need for models more sophisticated than the spherical ones routinely used to date. The data and model analyses provide a basis for devising future acoustical data acquisition and processing techniques for bioacoustical field studies.
Author Posting. © Acoustical Society of America, 1990. This article is posted here by permission of Acoustical Society of America for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 88 (1990): 2346-2360, doi:10.1121/1.400077.
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Differences between sound scattering by weakly scattering spheres and finite-length cylinders with applications to sound scattering by zooplankton Stanton, Timothy K.; Wiebe, Peter H.; Chu, Dezhang (Acoustical Society of America, 1998-01)A modeling study was conducted to determine the conditions under which fluidlike zooplankton of the same volume but different shapes (spherical/cylindrical) have similar or dramatically different scattering properties. ...
Chu, Dezhang; Wiebe, Peter H. (2004-12-11)Sound-speed and density contrasts (h and g, respectively), two important acoustic material properties, of live zooplankton were measured off the western Antarctic Peninsula during a Southern Ocean GLOBEC cruise conducted ...
Lavery, Andone C.; Wiebe, Peter H.; Stanton, Timothy K.; Lawson, Gareth L.; Benfield, Mark C.; Copley, Nancy J. (Acoustical Society of America, 2007-12)High-frequency acoustic scattering techniques have been used to investigate dominant scatterers in mixed zooplankton populations. Volume backscattering was measured in the Gulf of Maine at 43, 120, 200, and 420 kHz. ...