Application of pulse compression techniques to broadband acoustic scattering by live individual zooplankton
Stanton, Timothy K.
MetadataShow full item record
KeywordMatched filters; Acoustic signal processing; Backscatter; Acoustic wave scattering; Statistical analysis; Bioacoustics
Distinct frequency dependencies of the acoustic backscattering by zooplankton of different anatomical groups have been observed in our previous studies [Chu et al., ICES J. Mar. Sci. 49, 97–106 (1992); Stanton et al., ICES J. Mar. Sci. 51, 505–512 (1994)]. Based mainly on the spectral information, scattering models have been proposed to describe the backscattering mechanisms of different zooplankton groups [Stanton et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 236–253 (1998b)]. In this paper, an in-depth study of pulse compression (PC) techniques is presented to characterize the temporal, spectral, and statistical signatures of the acoustic backscattering by zooplankton of different gross anatomical classes. Data collected from various sources are analyzed and the results are consistent with our acoustic models. From compressed pulse (CP) outputs for all three different zooplankton groups, two major arrivals from different parts of the animal body can be identified: a primary and a secondary arrival. (1) Shrimplike animals (Euphausiids and decapod shrimp; near broadside incidence only): the primary one is from the front interface (interface closest to the transducer) of the animal and the secondary arrival is from the back interface; (2) gas-bearing animals (Siphonophores): the primary arrival is from the gas inclusion and the secondary arrival is from the body tissue ("local acoustic center of mass"); and (3) elastic shelled animals (Gastropods): the primary one is from the front interface and the secondary arrival corresponds to the subsonic Lamb wave that circumnavigates the surface of the shell. Statistical analysis of these arrivals is used to successfully infer the size of the individual animals. In conjunction with different aspects of PC techniques explored in this paper, a concept of partial wave target strength (PWTS) is introduced to describe scattering by the different CP highlights. Furthermore, temporal gating of the CP output allows rejection of unwanted signals, improves the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the spectra of selected partial waves of interest, and provides a better understanding of the scattering mechanism of the animals. In addition, it is found that the averaged PWTS can be used to obtain a more quantitative scattering characterization for certain animals such as siphonophores.
Author Posting. © Acoustical Society of America, 1998. This article is posted here by permission of Acoustical Society of America for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 104 (1998): 39-55, doi:10.1121/1.424056.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Differences between sound scattering by weakly scattering spheres and finite-length cylinders with applications to sound scattering by zooplankton Stanton, Timothy K.; Wiebe, Peter H.; Chu, Dezhang (Acoustical Society of America, 1998-01)A modeling study was conducted to determine the conditions under which fluidlike zooplankton of the same volume but different shapes (spherical/cylindrical) have similar or dramatically different scattering properties. ...
Broadband and statistical characterization of echoes from random scatterers : application to acoustic scattering by marine organisms Lee, Wu-Jung (Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2013-02)The interpretation of echoes collected by active remote-sensing systems, such as sonar and radar, is often ambiguous due to the complexities in the scattering processes involving the scatterers, the environment, and the ...
Sound scattering by several zooplankton groups. I. Experimental determination of dominant scattering mechanisms Stanton, Timothy K.; Chu, Dezhang; Wiebe, Peter H.; Martin, Linda V.; Eastwood, Robert L. (Acoustical Society of America, 1998-01)The acoustic scattering properties of live individual zooplankton from several gross anatomical groups have been investigated. The groups involve (1) euphausiids (Meganyctiphanes norvegica) whose bodies behave acoustically ...