Ray representation of sound scattering by weakly scattering deformed fluid cylinders : simple physics and application to zooplankton
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Data indicate that certain important types of marine organisms behave acoustically like weakly scattering fluid bodies (i.e., their material properties appear fluidlike and similar to those of the surrounding fluid medium). Use of this boundary condition, along with certain assumptions, allows reduction of what is a very complex scattering problem to a relatively simple, approximate ray-based solution. Because of the diversity of this problem, the formulation is presented in two articles: this first one in which the basic physics of the scattering process is described where the incident sound wave is nearly normally incident upon a single target (i.e., the region in which the scattering amplitude is typically at or near a maximum value for the individual) and the second one [Stanton et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 94, 3463–3472 (1993)] where the formulation is heuristically extended to all angles of incidence and then statistically averaged over a range of angles and target sizes to produce a collective echo involving an aggregation of randomly oriented different sized scatterers. In this article, a simple ray model is employed in the deformed cylinder formulation [Stanton, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 86, 691–705 (1989)] to describe the scattering by finite length deformed fluid bodies in the general shape of elongated organisms. The work involves single realizations of the length and angle of orientation. Straight and bent finite cylinders and prolate spheroids are treated in separate examples. There is reasonable qualitative comparison between the structure of the data collected by Chu et al. [ICES J. Mar. Sci. 49, 97–106 (1992)] involving two decapod shrimp and this single-target normal-incidence theory. This analysis forms the basis for successful comparison (presented in the companion article) between the extended formulation that is averaged over an ensemble of realizations of length and angle of orientation and scattering data involving aggregations of up to 100's of animals.
Author Posting. © Acoustical Society of America, 1993. This article is posted here by permission of Acoustical Society of America for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 94 (1993): 3454-3462, doi:10.1121/1.407199.
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Differences between sound scattering by weakly scattering spheres and finite-length cylinders with applications to sound scattering by zooplankton Stanton, Timothy K.; Wiebe, Peter H.; Chu, Dezhang (Acoustical Society of America, 1998-01)A modeling study was conducted to determine the conditions under which fluidlike zooplankton of the same volume but different shapes (spherical/cylindrical) have similar or dramatically different scattering properties. ...
Stanton, Timothy K.; Chu, Dezhang (Acoustical Society of America, 1992-09)Sonar echoes from unresolved features of rough objects tend to interfere with each other. Because of these interferences, properties of the echoes, such as its envelope level, will vary from realization to realization of ...
Stanton, Timothy K. (Acoustical Society of America, 1992-09)By use of the recently published deformed cylinder formulation [T. K. Stanton, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 86, 691–705 (1989)], the scattered field due to rough elongated dense elastic objects is derived. The (one-dimensional) ...