Three-dimensional global scale underwater sound modeling: The T-phase wave propagation of a southern Mid-Atlantic ridge earthquake
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A three-dimensional (3D) geodesic Cartesian parabolic equation model is utilized to study the propagation of low-frequency underwater sound (5 to 20 Hz), the so-called T-phase wave, triggered by a Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge earthquake. The sound from the earthquake was recorded at 1050 km from the epicenter by the deep water hydrophones of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization network near Ascension Island. A few hours later and at 8655 km from the epicenter, the hydrophones of the Shallow Water 2006 experiment in the U.S. East coast also registered the sound. Recorded field data showed discrepancies between expected and measured arrival angles indicating the likely occurrence of horizontal sound reflection in the long waveguide journey. Numerical modeling of this T-phase wave propagation across the Atlantic Ocean with realistic physical oceanographic inputs was performed, and the results showed the importance of 3D effects induced by the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and Atlantic Islands. Future research directions, including localization of T-phase wave generation/excitation locations, are also discussed.
Author Posting. © Acoustical Society of America, 2019. This article is posted here by permission of Acoustical Society of America for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 146(3), (2019): 2124-2135, doi:10.1121/1.5126010.