Measurement and modeling of three-dimensional sound intensity variations due to shallow-water internal waves
Katsnelson, Boris G.
Lynch, James F.
Siegmann, William L.
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KeywordOcean waves; Underwater sound; Parabolic equations; Acoustic intensity; Acoustic wave refraction
Broadband acoustic data (30–160 Hz) from the SWARM'95 experiment are analyzed to investigate acoustic signal variability in the presence of ocean internal waves. Temporal variations in the intensity of the received signals were observed over periods of 10 to 15 min. These fluctuations are synchronous in depth and are dependent upon the water column variability. They can be explained by significant horizontal refraction taking place when the orientation of the acoustic track is nearly parallel to the fronts of the internal waves. Analyses based on the equations of vertical modes and horizontal rays and on a parabolic equation in the horizontal plane are carried out and show interesting frequency-dependent behavior of the intensity. Good agreement is obtained between theoretical calculations and experimental data.
Author Posting. © Acoustical Society of America, 2005. This article is posted here by permission of Acoustical Society of America for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 117 (2005): 613-625, doi:10.1121/1.1828571.
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