Inorganic carbon and pCO(2) variability during ice formation in the Beaufort Gyre of the Canada Basin.
DeGrandpre, Michael D.
Krishfield, Richard A.
Torres, Daniel J.
MetadataShow full item record
Keywordsea ice; dissolved inorganic carbon; carbon cycle; solute exclusion; partial pressure of CO2; Arctic Ocean
Solute exclusion during sea ice formation is a potentially important contributor to the Arctic Ocean inorganic carbon cycle that could increase as ice cover diminishes. When ice forms, solutes are excluded from the ice matrix, creating a brine that includes dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (AT). The brine sinks, potentially exporting DIC and AT to deeper water. This phenomenon has rarely been observed, however. In this manuscript, we examine a ~1 year pCO2 mooring time series where a ~35‐μatm increase in pCO2 was observed in the mixed layer during the ice formation period, corresponding to a simultaneous increase in salinity from 27.2 to 28.5. Using salinity and ice based mass balances, we show that most of the observed increases can be attributed to solute exclusion during ice formation. The resulting pCO2 is sensitive to the ratio of AT and DIC retained in the ice and the mixed layer depth, which controls dilution of the ice‐derived AT and DIC. In the Canada Basin, of the ~92 μmol/kg increase in DIC, 17 μmol/kg was taken up by biological production and the remainder was trapped between the halocline and the summer stratified surface layer. Although not observed before the mooring was recovered, this inorganic carbon was likely later entrained with surface water, increasing the pCO2 at the surface. It is probable that inorganic carbon exclusion during ice formation will have an increasingly important influence on DIC and pCO2 in the surface of the Arctic Ocean as seasonal ice production and wind‐driven mixing increase with diminishing ice cover.
© The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in DeGrandpre, M. D., Lai, C., Timmermans, M., Krishfield, R. A., Proshutinsky, A., & Torres, D. Inorganic carbon and pCO(2) variability during ice formation in the Beaufort Gyre of the Canada Basin. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 124(6), (2019): 4017-4028, doi:10.1029/2019JC015109.
Suggested CitationDeGrandpre, M. D., Lai, C., Timmermans, M., Krishfield, R. A., Proshutinsky, A., & Torres, D. (2019). Inorganic carbon and pCO(2) variability during ice formation in the Beaufort Gyre of the Canada Basin. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 124(6), 4017-4028.
The following license files are associated with this item:
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Lake Michigan water chemistry data, including dissolved and particulate phosphorus, chlorophyll a, carbon dioxide, total dissolved inorganic carbon, and dissolved organic carbon. Bootsma, Harvey; Liao, Qian (Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO). Contact: email@example.com, 2019-03-15)Lake Michigan water chemistry data, including dissolved and particulate phosphorus, chlorophyll a, carbon dioxide, total dissolved inorganic carbon, and dissolved organic carbon. For a complete list of measurements, refer ...
The marine inorganic carbon system along the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coasts of the United States : insights from a transregional coastal carbon study Wang, Zhaohui Aleck; Wanninkhof, Rik; Cai, Wei-Jun; Byrne, Robert H.; Hu, Xinping; Peng, Tsung-Hung; Huang, Wei-Jen (Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography, 2013-01)Distributions of total alkalinity (TA), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and other parameters relevant to the marine inorganic carbon system were investigated in shelf and adjacent ocean waters during a U.S. Gulf of Mexico ...
Deciphering the dynamics of inorganic carbon export from intertidal salt marshes using high-frequency measurements Chu, Sophie N.; Wang, Zhaohui Aleck; Gonneea, Meagan E.; Kroeger, Kevin D.; Ganju, Neil K. (Elsevier, 2018-08-25)The lateral export of carbon from coastal marshes via tidal exchange is a key component of the marsh carbon budget and coastal carbon cycles. However, the magnitude of this export has been difficult to accurately quantify ...